We come across the various kind of mixtures in our daily life that have different kind of components and sometimes we have to separate the components for our benefit and there comes the need of separation in our day to day life.  we do separation by using different kind of separating techniques. some techniques Are conventional and summer modern. For example we do filtration for separating the tea leaves from tea, handpicking for cleaning the pulses and sieving in case of wheat flour.

Here are some separation techniques used in our daily life

  1. EvaporationThis technique is used for separation of A volatile component and a nonvolatile component in this technique we heat the mixture in the volatile component evaporates leaving behind the nonvolatile component.

For example as in case of separation of salt from seawater.

Factors affecting evaporation

  •  Temperature:- With the rise in temperature the rate of evaporation also increases as it helps in increasing the energy of volatile particles and making it to escape easily.
  • Surface area:-More is the surface area more will be the evaporation.
  • Wind speed :-The wind speed also affects the rate of evaporation as it helps in distribution of particles in a wider area.
  • Humidity:-  Lesser is the humidity more will be the Evaporation.

2. Centrifugation

This process is used to separate the mixture with complaints of different densities.

Principle :- When the particles of mixture are rotated at very high speed the particles with high-density are forced to words the bottom where as the light ray particles are at the top.

It is used at

  • In diagnostic labs for various tests related to blood and urine.
  • In the separation of cream from milk in dairy industry.
  • In washing machines for drying of clothes.

3. Use of separating funnel

The separating funnel can be used to separate two in miscible liquids.

In this process to a miscible liquids are placed in a separating funnel and allowed to stand for nearly 2 hours without any disturbance and then with the help of knobe provided At the base, the liquid can be obtained in separate beaker.For example separating the mustard oil from water.

4. Sublimation

This process is used to separate the mixture of two substances out of which one is sublimable and other is not.

In this process we heat the mixture and the substance that can sublime easily gets evaporated leaving behind the non-sublimable substance.

For example we can separate sodium chloride and ammonium chloride by this method. Here the Ammonium chloride will sublime leaving behind NaCl.

5. Chromatography

This name is derived from the greek word Kroma meaning colour. This is the modern technique used for separation of various kind of pigments present in dye.

This method was invented by Tswett.

In this technique the various components of a mixture are separated on the basis of difference in absorption in solvent. The different components are adsorbed at different levels.

This method is used for separating pigments from the natural colours, drugs from the blood and coloured components of black ink.

6. Crystallisation

This method is used to purify solids .in this process we mix The compound in a solvent. A solution with a high concentration is made at a high temperature and then it is allowed to cool down and undisturbed. The crystals are made at the bottom of container and the liquid or solvent is Decanted. The crystals Obtained are pure and this technique is used for purification of salt and crystals of Alum.

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