This is the which arise due to the inability of inner electrons to take part in the chemical reactions.

For example in case of group 15 we have Phosphorus, Arsenic , Tin and Bismuth. They all show the oxidation states of +3 and  +5, but as we move down the group we will see that the +3 oxidation state becomes more stable. This is due to the inability of inner electrons to take part in reaction.

These are more closely held by the nucleus.

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