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Is an alloy a pure substance or a mixture?

This question can be explained in the light of following concepts. In case of alloy the metals are mixed by melting them. The main point to note is that the proportion is not fixed in case of alloys. But in pure substances the proportion is fixed . And they make same kind of particles .

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How are covalent bonds and atoms related?

We can look upon this aspect in two different ways. 1. About individual atom if we consider the role of single atom in bonding , Maximum electron gain or loss is 3 electrons, so if an atom has more than 3 electrons it can not donate or gain electrons thus it follow covalent path by

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How we can prepare carboxylic acid from alkenes by oxidation ?

Here in this method of preparation of carboxylic acid , the oxidation of alkene is done by the strong oxidising agent like Potassium permangenate in the presence of basic medium, the whole reaction medium is then treated with Sulphuric acid. Here we can see in case of following reactions.

How we can prepare Phthalic acid from ortho xylene by oxidation?

It is a two step reaction in which 1. di-alkyl benzene is oxidised 2. In step two , the acidic environment helps in providing the Hydronium ions and they easily get converted into a carboxylic acid . Phtahlic Acid is used in various kind of preparations and has a vast industrial applications.

How we can prepare Benzoic acid from Toluene ?

The Benzoic acid can be prepared by the oxidation of Toluene . Firstly the Toluene is treated with potassium-permangnate in the presence of alkaline medium. Then acidic medium is provided to replace the potassium with hydrogen.

ਪਾਠ 10

page number 181 1  ਅਵਤਲ ਦਰਪਣ ਦੇ ਮੁੱਖ ਫੋਕਸ ਦੀ ਪ੍ਰੀਭਾਸ਼ਾ ਦਿਓ  ।ਉੱਤਰ :- ਅਵਤਲ  ਦਰਪਣ ਦਾ ਮੁੱਖ ਫੋਕਸ ਉਹ ਬਿੰਦੂ ਹੁੰਦਾ ਹੈ ਜਿਸ ਉੱਤੇ ਦਰਪਣ ਤੇ ਟਕਰਾਉਣ ਤੋਂ ਬਾਅਦ ਪ੍ਰਕਾਸ਼ ਦੀਆਂ ਕਿਰਨਾਂ  ਮਿਲਦੀਆਂ ਹਨ ਜਾਂ ਮਿਲਦੀਆਂ ਹੋਈਆਂ ਪ੍ਰਤੀਤ ਹੁੰਦੀਆਂ ਹਨ 2 ਇਕ ਗੋਲਾਕਾਰ ਦਰਪਣ  ਦਾ ਵਕਰਤਾ  ਅਰਧ ਵਿਆਸ  20 ਸੈਂਟੀਮੀਟਰ ਹੈ  ਉਸ ਦੀ ਫੋਕਸ

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ਅਵਤਲ ਦਰਪਣ ਦੇ ਮੁੱਖ ਫੋਕਸ ਦੀ ਪ੍ਰੀਭਾਸ਼ਾ ਦਿਓ ।

ਉੱਤਰ :- ਅਵਤਲ  ਦਰਪਣ ਦਾ ਮੁੱਖ ਫੋਕਸ ਉਹ ਬਿੰਦੂ ਹੁੰਦਾ ਹੈ ਜਿਸ ਉੱਤੇ ਦਰਪਣ ਤੇ ਟਕਰਾਉਣ ਤੋਂ ਬਾਅਦ ਪ੍ਰਕਾਸ਼ ਦੀਆਂ ਕਿਰਨਾਂ  ਮਿਲਦੀਆਂ ਹਨ ਜਾਂ ਮਿਲਦੀਆਂ ਹੋਈਆਂ ਪ੍ਰਤੀਤ ਹੁੰਦੀਆਂ ਹਨ ।

Why the pentahalides are more covalent than trihalides ?

The whole covalent and ionic factor depends upon the charge/ radius ratio. In case of +5 oxidation state the value of charge/radius is higher than +3 . And thus According to Fazan’s rule , ” higher is the charge/radius value higher will be covalent character.

Why does ozone act as a strong oxidising agent ?

Ozone is an allotropic form of oxygen which is very unstalble at earth’s syurface. It readily decomposes to give one nacent oxygen( single atom) and an oxygen molecule. The oxygen atom released here is highly unstable and reacts with the substrate, and thus readily oxidise it.

What is Tautomerism ?

It is the phenomenon in which an enol form gets converted into ketone or aldehyde form and this happens at the room temperature . In the above reaction the unstable “enol” form is converted into the ketone form by the movement of electrons from OH bond to the CO (carbonyl) bond and movement of hydride

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