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Why are pantahalides more covalent than trihalides?

It can be easily learned by Fazan’s rule that ion with more charge/radius ratio has more polarizing power. Now in case of pentahalides +5 , the charge/radius ratio is higher than +3, thus pentahalides have more polarizing power , thus it shows covalent character.

How the alkaline medium prevents the rusting of iron ?

The Rate of rusting of iron depends upon the availability of H+ ions , more the ions more will be the rusting. But if we provide the alkaline medium  , it will decrease the concentration of H+ ions. Thus the iron will not be oxidized from Fe to Fe2+ .

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