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There is a single lone pair on Nitrogen atom in ammonia . You can see our detailed post for proper grip on this concept. https://theunconditionalguru.in/2020/04/11/how-to-find-a-lone-pair-in-simple-way/
This question can be explained in the light of following concepts. In case of alloy the metals are mixed by melting them. The main point to note is that the proportion is not fixed in case of alloys. But in pure substances the proportion is fixed . And they make same kind of particles .
How is ethene the smallest alkene with formula C2H4? Shouldn’t methylene be the smallest alkenes with chemical formula CH2?
Actually the alkenes are the compounds that have a double bond between two carbon atoms. In the formulas given above in case of ethene we have two carbon atoms but in case of methene (just supposing actually it can’t even exist) there isn’t any second carbon atom with which it could make a double bond.
We can look upon this aspect in two different ways. 1. About individual atom if we consider the role of single atom in bonding , Maximum electron gain or loss is 3 electrons, so if an atom has more than 3 electrons it can not donate or gain electrons thus it follow covalent path by
Here in this method of preparation of carboxylic acid , the oxidation of alkene is done by the strong oxidising agent like Potassium permangenate in the presence of basic medium, the whole reaction medium is then treated with Sulphuric acid. Here we can see in case of following reactions.
In this method the methyl ketone is treated firstly with sodium hydroxide so we get the sodium salt of acid which is further treated with hydrochloric acid to get the final product , that is a carboxylic acid.
It is a two step reaction in which 1. di-alkyl benzene is oxidised 2. In step two , the acidic environment helps in providing the Hydronium ions and they easily get converted into a carboxylic acid . Phtahlic Acid is used in various kind of preparations and has a vast industrial applications.
The Benzoic acid can be prepared by the oxidation of Toluene . Firstly the Toluene is treated with potassium-permangnate in the presence of alkaline medium. Then acidic medium is provided to replace the potassium with hydrogen.
We can prepare carboxylic acids by the treatment of haloform with potassium hydroxide. The reaction involves the :- Displacement of halogen to give trihydroxy unstable intermediate , which rearranges to yeild carboxylic acid and water.
We can make carboxylic acid by the carboxylation of alkenes. This method is also known as the Koch reaction . In this method an alkene is treated with carbon monoxide with steam under high temprature and pressure.
Preparation of carboxylic acids by the hydrolysis of Esters is a convenient method . The ester is treated with water in the presence of acidic or basic medium. Then we get carboxylic acid and alcohol as the products.
how we can prepare carboxylic acid (benzoic acid) from acyl halides and acid anhydrides (benzoic anhydride)
Preparation of carboxylic acids from acyl halides is a simple method in which the acid chloride or halide is hydrolysed to give carboxylic acids. The general reaction and examples are given below..
ਉੱਤਰ :- ਅਵਤਲ ਦਰਪਣ ਦਾ ਮੁੱਖ ਫੋਕਸ ਉਹ ਬਿੰਦੂ ਹੁੰਦਾ ਹੈ ਜਿਸ ਉੱਤੇ ਦਰਪਣ ਤੇ ਟਕਰਾਉਣ ਤੋਂ ਬਾਅਦ ਪ੍ਰਕਾਸ਼ ਦੀਆਂ ਕਿਰਨਾਂ ਮਿਲਦੀਆਂ ਹਨ ਜਾਂ ਮਿਲਦੀਆਂ ਹੋਈਆਂ ਪ੍ਰਤੀਤ ਹੁੰਦੀਆਂ ਹਨ ।
The whole covalent and ionic factor depends upon the charge/ radius ratio. In case of +5 oxidation state the value of charge/radius is higher than +3 . And thus According to Fazan’s rule , ” higher is the charge/radius value higher will be covalent character.
Ozone is an allotropic form of oxygen which is very unstalble at earth’s syurface. It readily decomposes to give one nacent oxygen( single atom) and an oxygen molecule. The oxygen atom released here is highly unstable and reacts with the substrate, and thus readily oxidise it.
Zn, Ti and Fe are active metals and tgey can easily react with oxygen but Pt ( platinum) being a noble metal does not react . The fact which supports it is that the sum of its four ionisation enthalpies is very high and thus it cannot react.
Why does increasing the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons in an atom change the properties of an atom so much ?
With change in number of protons , neutrons and electrons, the element changes completely . The valency of elements change, so the formula and combining capacity also changes.
Gram atomic mass/ weight :- It is the atomic mass expressed in grams. Gram molecular mass or weight :- It is the molecular mass of a molecule expressed in grams. For more info click on the following link. https://theunconditionalguru.in/2020/04/21/what-is-mole-concept-give-full-explanation/
Does ammonia exhibit hydrogen bonding in its gaseous state (inorganic chemistry, hydrogen bond, chemistry)?
No, in case of gaseous state there is not any kind of intermolecular intraction.
It is the phenomenon in which an enol form gets converted into ketone or aldehyde form and this happens at the room temperature . In the above reaction the unstable “enol” form is converted into the ketone form by the movement of electrons from OH bond to the CO (carbonyl) bond and movement of hydride
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