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The story of first Inert gas compound

Neil Bartlett a chemical scientist, was studying the properties of Xenon, at that time he started comparing the ionisation enthalpies of Xenon with other elements. when he compared Ionisation enthalpy of Xenon (1170 kj/mol) with Oxygen (1175 kj/mol) , he found that these are almost identical. Oxygen on treatment with PtF6 gave O2PtF6 , this lead

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How halogens are strong oxidising agents ?

In case of halogens , all the elements require only one electron to complete their outer shell. The general electronic configuration of halogens is ns2np5 which shows it has a high tendency to gain an electron. and a good oxidising agent is that which can gain electrons from the substrate or other element or ion.

Halogens make coloured compounds.

Halogens ,the elements of group 17, show colour because of a simple phenomenon. The electrons present in the outermost shell absorb energy in the visible spectrum for the excitation of electrons from lower energy shell to the higher energy shell. as they are absorbing light from the visible spectrum thus they show the corresponding colour.

Oxo-acids of sulphur

Here is the list of oxo-acids of sulphur :- (i) Thiosulphuric Acid – H2S2O3 (ii) Pyrosulphuric Acid – H2S2O7 (iii) Thiopersulphuric Acid – H2S2O4 (iv) Sulphuric Acid – H2SO4 (v) Peroxodisulphuric Acid – H2S2O8 (vi) Sulphurous Acid – H2SO3 (vii) Peroxomonosulphuric Acid – H2SO5 (viii) Dithiopersulphuric Acid – H2S2O5

Mond’s process

It is the process that is utilized to obtain pure Nickel from the impure Nickel. In this method we react the nickel with carbon-monoxide at about 60 to 80 degree Celsius, to get a carbonyl compound which is volatile in nature, the impurities can not make the volatile compund , so here they get separated.

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Froth floatation process

This type of method is usually used for the metal ores that are lighter than the gangue particles, especially the sulphide ores. For example Copper pyrite (ore of copper) and Argentite (ore of silver). In this method the preferential wetting properties of the ore with the frothing agent and the water is utilised. The sulphide

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Zone Refining

It is a method of refining of metals with impurities. The principal of this method is simply based on a fact that the impurities present in the metals are more soluble in the molten state. In this technique the metal rod is exposed to a ring like heater that surrounds the metal rod, the heater

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The axial bonds are longer than the equatorial bonds.

In case of PCl5 the bond pairs present on the axial position suffer more repulsion than that of bond pairs present on the equatorial position. Actually each bond pair present at the axial position has to face the repulsion of three equatorial bond pairs, due to this the bond is stretched and hence the bond

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Ambidentate ligands

These are the ligands that have more than one sites for donation of pair of electrons. Or simply the ligands that have more than one donor atom. For example EDTA, ethylene-di-amine

Principal Ores of Zinc and copper and their uses.

1. Zinc blende – ZnS 2. Calamine – ZnCO3 Uses of Zinc metal. The zinc metal is used for the manufacture of dying or painting , also for galvanization of iron. It is also used as the outer cover of dry cell and as a cathode also. Ores of copper and their uses Copper pyrites

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What are Errors and its types.

Error is the difference between calculated value and theoretical value. It is very difficult to totally eliminate the errors, but we can minimize them. The errors depend upon the person which is handling the apparatus and also upon the precision of the instrument. (I) Types of Errors on the basis of nature of errors. 1.

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Why amines are basic in nature but amides are not ?

To understand this topic we have to see the structures of both by taking simple examples. CH3CONH2 – Amide and CH3CH2NH2 –Amine   here as it is clear in the upper structures, on case of amides, the nitrogen atom is joined with oxygen. being more electron attracting , the oxygen decreases the electron density on

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Why Perchloric acid is stronger than sulphuric acid ?

The strength of an acid depends upon the oxidation state of the central atom. More is the oxidation state higher is the acidic character. In case of HClO4(perchloric acid) the oxidation state of chlorine is +7. And in case of H2SO4 (sulphuric acid) the oxidation state of Sulphur is +6 . The oxidation state of

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What is a void ? Give its types.

Void is the empty space present in the crystal lattice. It is the unoccupied space in between the lattice points. There are:- 1. Tetrahedral void 2. Octahedral void

An organic compound of carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen contains elements having a mass percentage of 66.67%, 7.41% and 25.92%, respectively. What is the empirical formula?

Step 1 : Assume the percentage as grams and divide it with molar mass. Step 2: By this way you have calculated the number of moles , further divide evey term with the smallest term which you have calculated in step 1. Step 3 : Now you have the simple whole number ratio of elements

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Why benzoic acid is stronger than ethanoic acid ?

In case of benzoic acid the COOH group that is carboxylic group , is attached to benzene ring which is electron withdrawing in nature. On the other hand in case of ethanoic acid we have alkyl group attached to the carboxylic group which is electron releasing in nature thus it decreases the acidic character by

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Why Carboxylic Acids are more acidic than phenols ?

In case of carboxylic acids the negative charge is on the more electronegative element that is oxygen as shown in the structure in both of the resonating structures. The negative charge on the more electronegative element makes it more stable. And thus it shows acidic character easily. But in case of phenols the negative charge

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The primary cells.

These are the cells in which non reversible redox reaction takes place. That is they can give electrical energy only once at the cost of reaction taking place in them , once the reaction is over , the cells get exhausted and can not be used again. And these cells can never be recharged agin.

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