Category: chemistry

What is the reason for Zn having a lower reduction capacity than Na, Mg, and Zn?

The reduction potential of a substance depends upon the ease with which an atom can release electrons. Or can loose electrons. Here in these examples Na readily looses electron , and it is the element which easily  donates or releases electrons among all it can easily give electrons to reduce other atom. Mg comes on

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Is Br2 an ionic or a covalent bond?

Br2  is a homoatomic molecule, a molecule with same kind of atoms. So here the electronegativity of both the atoms is same so the shared pair is equally attracted by the two atoms. There is not a chance of transfer of electrons from one atom to another. And thus they go for sharing of electrons

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Covalent bonds versus ionic bonds.

There are two types of bonds that can be formed Either by sharing of electrons , that is covalent bond. Or 2. By transfer of electrons , that is ionic bond. Now the question is that , why to go for covalent bond? An important aspect of ionic bond is that the difference of electronegativity

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What is an electrophile?

See electrophile word is made up by the joining of two words “electro+phile. Electro means the “electron “ and phile means “loving” in short the electrophile is electron loving specie or attacking reagent that attacks only on the part of molecule with high electron density. For example :- H+ , H3O+ , NH4+   and BF3

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Why is a Cl-Cl bond stronger than an F-F bond?

This is due to the following two major reasons :- The fluorine atoms are very small in size . The florine element is having the highest electronegativity. Due to these two reasons the florine atoms are so near after the F-F bonding that the start repelling each other due to higher electron desity, which makes

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Why the diastereomers of optically active compounds are optically inactive?

Firstly let us discuss what are optically active compounds? These are the compounds that rotate the plane of polarized light. Now Diastereomers are basically mirror images of two optically active compounds. They rotate the plane of polarized light, either to the left side or to the right. If they are present together, they cancel the

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What is the difference between molecular mass and formula mass?

In case of ionic compounds we have crystal lattice composed of ions. And there is a never ending pattern of ions and that made it difficult to calculate the molecular mass. Thus we used a simple method by taking the ratio of the ions and then adding their masses, like in case of NaCl ;

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What is the difference between stereoisomers, optical isomers and enantiomers?

Stereoisomers :- These are the compounds that have same molecular formula but different arrangement of atoms in the space. Optical isomers :- The compunds that have same molecular formula but they rotate the plane polarised light to the different side, right side-dextrorotatory and left levorotatory. Enantiomer :- These are the compounds that are mirror images

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What is a racemic mixture?

On the basis of Optical activity the compounds or isomers can be classified into two types:- Those rotate the plane polarised light towards right called the dextro rotatory compounds. Those rotate the plane polarised light towards left are called Laevo rotatory compounds. The equimolar composition of the above two isomers is called racemic mixture.

How many atoms are there in 1 gram of carbon?

For  calculation of number of atoms we have to calculate the number of moles present in 1gram carbon. Multiply the number of moles with Avogadro number. Step I  Number of moles in 1 gram of carbon = given mass / molar mass Molar mass (molecular or atomic mass expressed in grams) = 12g So the

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What is the hybridisation of Cl2? Is it different from the hybridisation of F2 molecules?

Here you can see the hybridization of both is same , both of these two elements have seven electrons in outermost shell and below is the diagram showing the electrons filled in s-subshell and p-subshell . one orbital of s- subshell and three orbitals of p-subshell are used during hybridisation. So the type of hybridization

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What will be the volume of water when it is heated from 0 degrees Celsius to 10 degrees Celsius?

According to CHARLES LAW “At constant pressure, The volume of a given mass of a gas increases or decreses by 1/273 of its volume at 0 ͦ  degree C for every one degree centigrade rise or fall in temperature”. Vol at 10 = vol at zero + 10 x vol at zero/273

How many oxygen atoms are there in 90g of H2O molecule?

1 molecule of H2O has 1 atom of oxygen. Firstly we will calculate the number of atoms in 90g of H2O. we will explain it in two steps:- Step I:- No.of moles of H2O = given mass / molar mass No. of moles = 90/18 = 5 moles No. Of molecules = No. of moles

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What is the number of moles of O-atom in 126 AMU of HNO3?

Here we have 126 AMU of HNO3, Molar mass of HNO3 is 1+14+16×3 = 63amu Number of molecules of HNO3 are = 126/63 = 2 Here we have 2 molecules Each molecule have 3 atoms of oxygen. So no. of oxygen atoms= 3×2 =6 atoms No. Of moles = given particles/ avogadro number No. of

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Why methanoic acid is stronger than ethanoic acid?

In case of methanoic acid the carbon atom joined to the carboxyl group is attached to only hydrogen atoms which are not able to increase the electron density. HCOOH  But in case of ethanoic acid we have a methyl group attached to the carbon of carboxyl group , which is electron releasing group and it

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How does the normality of a mixture equation change for different solutes?

Actually normality depends upon a simple formula that is :- Normality = Number of Gram equivalents / litre The term gram equivalents change as the valency of a substance changes . all the elements do not have same valence and hence it varies from element to element or molecule to molecule. And the term gram

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What is a chemical bond ?

Chemical bond may be defined as the force of attraction by which two atoms are held together. The chemical bonds lead to the formation of molecules and crystals. There are various kind of bonding that we see around us. Covalent bond A covalent bond is formed by mutual sharing of electrons between two atoms. For

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Neutralisation reaction

The reaction between an acid and base to give salt and water is called neutralisation reaction. here in the following reaction we can easily see how Hydrochloric acid is reacting with sodium chloride NaOH + HCl ———> NaCl + H2O the nature of salt formed is dependent on the type of acid or base , if

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Atomic models

Thomson’s model of an atom Thomson proposed the model of an atom to be similar to that of the Christmas pudding. Thomson proposed that An atom consists of a positively charged sphere and electrons are embedded into it. The negative and positive charges are equal in magnitude so the atom as a whole is electrically

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