Ald + ol Ald- Aldehyde ; ol – Alcohol. As the name suggests , this is a type of reaction which involve the formation of such a molecule which have “alcohol and aldehyde” functional groups.
Perkin reaction This reaction is used in the synthesis of β-aryl-acrylic acid. This reaction is mostly used for the prepration of cinnamic acid. Coumerin, a flavouring agent is also prepared by this method.
for this you have to see the molecule of sugar. and calculate number of moles. The formula of sugar , sucrose C12H22O11 , molar mass = 342 According to above […]
How in copper sulphate electrolysis with copper metal (electrode) the number of Cu+2 ions oxidised are to the one reduced?
in this case one of the electrode is of copper, and this copper electrode is taken as anode. so the oxidation takes place here. The half reaction taking place on anode – Oxidation Cu → Cu2+ + 2e – Similarly on cathode side reduction takes place as follows Cu2+ + 2e – → Cu
This is the which arise due to the inability of inner electrons to take part in the chemical reactions. For example in case of group 15 we have Phosphorus, Arsenic , Tin and Bismuth. They all show the oxidation states of +3 and +5, but as we move down the group we will see that the +3 oxidation state becomes […]
The P2 molecule of phosphorus is not found because of the larger size of the phosphorus atom. The phosphorus is so larger that the p-orbitals which are required to overlapp […]
Why is breaking of C-H bond given more preference over C-C bond though the bond energy of the latter is less than the first one?
In case of hydrocarbons , the c-c bond is normally safe due to following two reasons :- Difference between the electronegativity of Carbon and Hydrogen. Due to this reason the electrons of the shared pair stays closer to the C-atom which makes it easy to break the C-H bond and release hydrogen as hydronium ion H+ . 2. The carbon […]
On the basis of polarity , the covalent bonds can be of two types :- 1 Nonpolar covalent bond When covalent bond is formed between two similar atoms for example between hydrogen and hydrogen H2, between oxygen oxygen O2, between chlorine chlorine Cl2 , the shared pair of electrons is attracted by both atoms with an equal force so there […]
What are the characteristics of a lone pair? Characteristics of a lone pair Lone pair are the pair of electrons that do not take part in any chemical bond. They affect the symmetry of molecule or the shape of molecule as they interfere with the other electrons of the molecule . The electrons of lone pair repel the other bond […]
If diamond and graphite are made of carbon, then why do they look different, and why is diamond harder than graphite? Diamond and graphite are two allotropic forms of Carbon. […]
A nice question both silicon and carbon belong to group 14 and have 4 electrons in the outermost shell. Their general valency is 4 , but silicon and other elements […]
How are reactions related to chemical bonds? The type of bond has a great effect on the rate of reaction or speed of reaction. Here we are going to discuss why and how it happens, First of all in case of ionic compounds:- Lets take example of Sodium hydroxide and Hydrochloric acid NaOH (aq) + HCl (aq) → NaCl + […]
To understand this we have to go in depth , that how the ionic bond is formed? Ionic bond is a bond basically formed due to strong electrostatic forces of attraction which is totally different from the covalent bond. Ionic bond is formed between atoms with very different ionisation energy and electron affinity. This situation allows one atom to transfer […]
In our daily life we come across different kind of particles, some look alike and some we know by common names. tody we are going to arrange almost all the particles around us. Elements :- it is the purest form of matter which has only one kind of atoms. There are 118 elements known till today. For example :- Iron, […]
(NH4)2S , it is basically an ionic compound . (NH4)2S → 2NH4+ + S2-
Here are the standard electrode potentials of elements .
Which type of radius is formed by metalloid (a). Covalent radius (b).ionic radius (c).vander waal radius (d). Metallic radius?
see lets solve it in a reverse order :- (d) metallic radius is only in case of metals, not in any other. so it is not the answer. (c) Vander waals radius is only in case of noble gases. so this also not the answer. (b) For ionic radius there should be the electronegativity difference of at least 2. This […]
What are azetopes? Azeotropes are the constent boiling mixtures or solutions. it means that these mixtures can not be separated by simple distillation or boiling , because they will have the same composition of mixture even in the vapour state. for example as in case of mixture of nitric acid and water, the highest attained concentration of the nitric acid […]
In case of PF3 the size of F is small and thus it approaches near to the central atom that is P. as it approaches near to P there comes the repulsion between the bond pairs, which widens the bond angle and makes it larger than in case of PCl3. Here two types of forces are deployed Bond pair – […]
There is a trick in learning this reaction I will make it very easy for you to learn and rewrite. Firstly see the reaction:- Na2CO3 + 2HCl → 2NaCl + CO2 + H2O Tricks to learn:– Firstly see the formula of carbonate its CO3 , this will be converted into CO2 , One oxygen of CO3 will attach to two […]
The number of valence electrons in phosphorus is generally 5 and it requires 3 more electrons to complete its octet. but it has an empty d-sub shell in which its electrons can excite and increase its valency from 3 to 5. in the above picture you can easily understand in case of phosphorus , the electron from s-subshell jumps to […]
See the ion is a proper charged particle, but dipole is a neutral olecule which is having polarity in it . the dipole is having temporary charge where as the […]
Covalent bond and ionic bond has a very basic difference that is presence of ions or not. The ionic bonds are not limited to one ion only, actually they keep on joining again and again because they are held together by basically the electrostatic forces, due to the oppositely charged ions. lets take example of NaCl molecule. The positively charged […]
The reduction potential of a substance depends upon the ease with which an atom can release electrons. Or can loose electrons. Here in these examples Na readily looses electron , and it is the element which easily donates or releases electrons among all it can easily give electrons to reduce other atom. Mg comes on the second position to give […]
Ionic bonds are considered to be the most strongest bond as it involves the electrostatic attraction , which is the strongest force. Second comes the metallic bond which is a type of multiple bond.
Br2 is a homoatomic molecule, a molecule with same kind of atoms. So here the electronegativity of both the atoms is same so the shared pair is equally attracted by the two atoms. There is not a chance of transfer of electrons from one atom to another. And thus they go for sharing of electrons only to satisfy their valencies. […]
There are two types of bonds that can be formed Either by sharing of electrons , that is covalent bond. Or 2. By transfer of electrons , that is ionic bond. Now the question is that , why to go for covalent bond? An important aspect of ionic bond is that the difference of electronegativity between the two elements must […]
See electrophile word is made up by the joining of two words “electro+phile. Electro means the “electron “ and phile means “loving” in short the electrophile is electron loving specie or attacking reagent that attacks only on the part of molecule with high electron density. For example :- H+ , H3O+ , NH4+ and BF3 etc
Total valency of a compound is zero. Before starting the topic lets talk about valency. Valency is the combining capacity of an atom or element. Now if the element is having a valency = 2, It means it can make two bonds, Now if two bonds are made, will it have a capacity to join further? No, it can’t make […]
This is due to the following two major reasons :- The fluorine atoms are very small in size . The florine element is having the highest electronegativity. Due to these two reasons the florine atoms are so near after the F-F bonding that the start repelling each other due to higher electron desity, which makes it easy to break the […]
Firstly let us discuss what are optically active compounds? These are the compounds that rotate the plane of polarized light. Now Diastereomers are basically mirror images of two optically active compounds. They rotate the plane of polarized light, either to the left side or to the right. If they are present together, they cancel the effect of each other. As […]
In case of ionic compounds we have crystal lattice composed of ions. And there is a never ending pattern of ions and that made it difficult to calculate the molecular mass. Thus we used a simple method by taking the ratio of the ions and then adding their masses, like in case of NaCl ; 23 of Na + 35.5 […]
Here are the characteristics of pure substances They are composed of same kind of particles. Can not be solved into its components by physical method. Have characteristic melting and boiling points. All the particles or the bulk show similar chemical and physical behavior.
Stereoisomers :- These are the compounds that have same molecular formula but different arrangement of atoms in the space. Optical isomers :- The compunds that have same molecular formula but they rotate the plane polarised light to the different side, right side-dextrorotatory and left levorotatory. Enantiomer :- These are the compounds that are mirror images of each other and if […]
On the basis of Optical activity the compounds or isomers can be classified into two types:- Those rotate the plane polarised light towards right called the dextro rotatory compounds. Those rotate the plane polarised light towards left are called Laevo rotatory compounds. The equimolar composition of the above two isomers is called racemic mixture.
For calculation of number of atoms we have to calculate the number of moles present in 1gram carbon. Multiply the number of moles with Avogadro number. Step I Number of moles in 1 gram of carbon = given mass / molar mass Molar mass (molecular or atomic mass expressed in grams) = 12g So the number of mole= 1/12 […]
Here you can see the hybridization of both is same , both of these two elements have seven electrons in outermost shell and blow is the diagram showing the electrons filling in s-subshell and p-subshell . one orbital of s- subshell and three orbitals of p-subshell are used during hybridization. So the type of hybridization is sp3 hybridisation.
According to CHARLES LAW “At constant pressure, The volume of a given mass of a gas increases or decreses by 1/273 of its volume at 0 ͦ degree C for every one degree centigrade rise or fall in temperature”. Vol at 10 = vol at zero + 10 x vol at zero/273
1 molecule of H2O has 1 atom of oxygen. Firstly we will calculate the number of atoms in 90g of H2O. we will explain it in two steps:- Step I:- No.of moles of H2O = given mass / molar mass No. of moles = 90/18 = 5 moles No. Of molecules = No. of moles x Avogadro number =5 x […]
Here we have 126 AMU of HNO3, Molar mass of HNO3 is 1+14+16×3 = 63amu Number of molecules of HNO3 are = 126/63 = 2 Here we have 2 molecules Each molecule have 3 atoms of oxygen. So no. of oxygen atoms= 3×2 =6 atoms No. Of moles = given particles/ avogadro number No. of moles of oxygen = 6 […]
In case of methanoic acid the carbon atom joined to the carboxyl group is attached to only hydrogen atoms which are not able to increase the electron density. HCOOH But […]
Actually normality depends upon a simple formula that is :- Normality = Number of Gram equivalents / litre The term gram equivalents change as the valency of a substance changes . all the elements do not have same valence and hence it varies from element to element or molecule to molecule. And the term gram equivalents is calculated as follows […]
Chemical bond may be defined as the force of attraction by which two atoms are held together. The chemical bonds lead to the formation of molecules and crystals. There are […]
sulfuric acid ionizes to give us hydronium ion and sulfate ion. H2SO4 (aq) → 2H+ + SO4
The reaction between an acid and base to give salt and water is called neutralisation reaction. here in the following reaction we can easily see how Hydrochloric acid is reacting with sodium chloride NaOH + HCl ———> NaCl + H2O the nature of salt formed is dependent on the type of acid or base , if there is any difference then […]
Thomson’s model of an atom Thomson proposed the model of an atom to be similar to that of the Christmas pudding. Thomson proposed that An atom consists of a positively […]
Dalton’s Atomic Theory In 1808 John Dalton published a new system of chemical philosophy in which he propose the following theory :- Matter consist of indivisible atoms. All the atoms […]
Distillation is a type of separating process in which two miscible liquids are separated from each other by using their different boiling points. the one with lower boiling point , […]
Valency :- “It is the combining capacity of an atom”. it also indicates the number of electrons that can be gained , lost or shared . It decides that how […]
Something went wrong. Please refresh the page and/or try again.
Hi, I’m Ankush Sharma. post graduate in chemistry and organic chemistry specialist
Our team is dedicated to deliver the most authentic and reliable study material.
Every reaction is duly checked by the author before sharing it with you.
Subscribe to My Blog
Get new content delivered directly to your inbox.