It is a homogenous mixture of metals . sometime a small quantity of non metal is also added in it . for example steel , brass and bronze.
Manganese exhibit largest number of oxidation states, because it has highest number of unpaired electrons. here is the example.
The enthalpy of hydration of Cu+2 is enough negative which can easily compensate the second ionisation energy of copper. That is why Cu+2 ions are more stable in the aqueous solution.
The elements in which the last electron is filled in f-subshell are called inner transition metals. These are also known as f-block elements.
These are the elements in which the outermost electron is filled in 5f-subshell.
The elements from atomic number 89 (Actinium) to 103 Lawrencium, involving the filling of 5f-subshell.
In case of inner transition elements there are three incomplete orbitals. these are s, d , and f .
It the phenomenon in which the atomic radii of elements decrease from Lanthanum to Lutetium. Or more simply it is the decrease in atomic radii when we move from La to Lu .
This is because of the lanthanoid contraction as in case of 3rd transition series, the filling of f-subshell takes place. The screening effect of f-subshell is least . Due to this the effective nuclear charge experienced by 3rd transition series is quite high. The increase in size due to increase in shell numbers is overcame
It is due to the lanthanoid contraction.
In case of Zr and Hf the lanthanoid contraction takes place which accounts for the similar atomic size and because of similar size they are found together.
The atomic radii of both the elements is similar, due to which their physical properties also match. so these are very difficult to separate by physical methods.
The lanthenoids show the following configuration :- Ln – 4f 1-14 5 s2 5s6 6s2 And configuration of Calcium is :- Ca- [Ar] 4s2 In both of the cases there are 2 electrons in outer s-subshell. Thus ionisation enthalpies of lanthenoids are comparable to the Calcium.
Europium is the element that shows very low value of third ionisation enthalpy.
Mischmetal is an alloy having the following components:- Lanthenoids 95% Iron 5% Traces of Sulphur , Carbon , Calcium and Aluminium
The uses of mischmetal are :- To produce bullets Lighter flint Shells
Lanthanoid oxide is the compound used as phosphors in T.V. screen.
The mixed oxides of lanthanoids are used in the cracking of petrolium .
Protactinium (Pa) is the element that starts the filling of 5f subshell.
This is because of two reasons:-
It is the phenomenon of regular decrease in size as we move from Actinium to Lawrencium due the poor shielding effect of f- subshell.
The most common oxidation state shown by the actinoids is +3
Maximum or highest oxidation state of actinoids is +4.
Minimum oxidation state shown by the lanthenoids is +2 .
The components of steel are :- Iron = 95% Carbon = 5% Chromium Manganese Nickel
Titanium oxide (TiO) is the compound used in the pigment industry.
The compound used in dry cell is manganese oxide (MnO2)
+4 is the highest oxidation state shown by the lanthenoids.
Nickel and Cadmium are the two metals which are used in the large scale battery production.
Copper , Silver and Gold (elements of group 11) are known as the coinage metals as they were used in making coins in the older times.
Titanium tetrachloride TiCl4 is Ziegler-Natta catalyst.
In Wacker’s process PdCl2 is used for oxidation of ethyne to ethanol .
Silver bromide is used in photography. This due to the fact that AgBr readily decomposes to Ag and Br on exposure to light.
Complexes of Nickel are useful in polymerisation of alkynes .
+2 is the lowest common oxidation state of transition metals.
The soft drinks and soda water are packed under high pressure.
The chemical formula for water is H2O
It the ratio of number of moles of a perticular component to the total number of moles of components present in the mixture .
With change in temperature the volume of solvent increases ,due to this the molarity of the solution decreases.
Molarity : It decreases with increase in temperature. Molality : It remains constant . Doesn’t change. In the light of above points it is clear that any change in temperature can bring change in concentration of the solution.
Because the mass do not vary with change in temperature. It remains the same.
Molality remains unaffected with any change in temperature. This is due to the fact that it uses the mass of solvent in Kilograms instead of volume in litres.
Benzene is a non polar solvent and salt is polar in nature . Thus it is not soluble in benzene , whereas in case of water , water and salt both are polar in nature so it is soluble in water.
It is because of the fact that the water and alcohol are polar in nature . Moreover they make Hydrogen bonds, which are a type of weak attraction which facilitates their mixing in all proportions. The following diagram depicts that :-
It can be explained on the basis of simple fact that like dissolves like. Oil is non polar liquid where as water is polar liquid so these do not mix.
No , smoke is not a homogeneous solution . as the particle size of dispersed phase is larger it belongs to the colloidal mixture.
Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane is an insecticide. It is banned in various countries . It is useful in killing various insects especially malaria causing mosquito.
These are prepared under anhydrous conditions as they easily react with water to give following reaction :-
The alkyl halides are polar in nature , but the molecules in them are strongly held by the hydrogen bonds formed between H and X (halide = F, Cl, Br atoms). these bonds are not easily broken, a lot of energy is required to break this interaction. Even the heat released at the time of
There are two major aspects that can explain this :- The C-Cl bond in case of chlorobenzene is having some double bond like character , which is indicated by its shorter bond length. thus it indicates the back-flow of electrons from the Chlorine to the Carbon. Thus the polarity decreases and it shows non polar
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Hi, I’m Ankush Sharma. post graduate in chemistry and organic chemistry specialist
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