Preparation of ketone from benzene

here in this reaction the benzene reacts with phosgene , the both of chlorine atoms of phosgene are lost with H-atoms from both benzene molecules , and carbonyl group forms bond with both of the benzene molecules , giving rise to the Benzophenone. This is an important reaction in the synthesis of ketones only.

Ring Substitution reactions of Aromatic acids.

In case of aromatic acids the “COOH” group being electron withdrawing in nature , decreases the electron density on the ring. the meta position is least affected by the electron withdrawing group and thus the electron density is higher than other resonating structures. thus the substitution reactions give meta products.

Formation of amides from carboxylic acids

Various carboxylic acids react with ammonia to give an ammonium salt which further give amid on dehydration. The phthalamide synthesized by this method is a starting point for various reactions used in chemical industries.

Zeeman effect.

It is the splitting of spectral lines in hydrogen spectra due to the effect of external magnetic field .

Mechanism of Esterification of Carboxylic Acids.

In case of Esterification the nucleophile(centre loving specie that attacks on the electron deficit site) attacks on the carbocation intermediate formed during the reaction. The attack leads to the formation of a tetrahedral intermediate which on rearrangement(proton shift) and loss of water molecule, leads to the final product. the step-wise and easy illustration is given

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Stark effect

It is the splitting of spectral lines into further fine lines due to the presence of external electric field.

what is resonance and the rules of writing the resonating structures.

When two or more valence-bond structures are possible, differing only in the placement of electrons, the molecule will usually show characteristics of both structures. The different structures are called resonance structures or resonance forms because they are not different compounds, just different ways of drawing the same compound. The actual molecule is said to be

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Hi, I’m Ankush Sharma. post graduate in chemistry and organic chemistry specialist

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