What are isoelectric species? And What determines the difference in the size of atoms or ions if they are isoelectronic ?

the atoms having same number of electrons, irrespective of atomic number or size or charge.

How many lone pairs of electrons are on the S atom in sulphur tetra floride (SF4) ?

In case of SF4 there are 6 electrons in the outermost shell of Sulphur, out of these 6 electrons, 4 are utilized in bonding with fluorine and thus two unshared electrons are there. Which leads to the lone pair as shown below. Contribute to make this site more informative.

What are Colligative properties ?

Actually the word co-ligative itself reveals that (“co” means each other and “ligative” means related) These are the properties which are related to each other. The colligative properties are those properties that depend on the number of solute particles in a solution or a mixture. “These properties don’t depend upon the nature of particles “.Continue reading “What are Colligative properties ?”

Why is carbon important for forming complicated molecules? Or why carbon makes a large number of molecules ?

The answer to this question is very simple . There are two major reasons behind it. 1. Catenation :- It is the property by which the carbon can make long chains, branched chains and ring or cylic structural by joining with its own atoms. Due to this it can make a variety of molecules. 2.Continue reading “Why is carbon important for forming complicated molecules? Or why carbon makes a large number of molecules ?”

Why are the noble gases chemically inert?

The outer or valence shell of these elements is complete. And they need not to make any bond. They do not share or transfer the electrons . Due to fully filled orbitals, Their ionisation enthalpies are also very high. So removing an electron from them is also very difficult. The examples of these are Helium,Continue reading “Why are the noble gases chemically inert?”

Why H3PO3 is a diprotic acid? Give reason with structure .

Meaning of diprotic acid is that , it can loose two hydronium ions (H+) . For finding how many H+ ions it can give , we have to see its structure. Here it have only two hydroxyl groups that is -OH groups, and the hydrogen atoms joined to these only are ionisable. So only theseContinue reading “Why H3PO3 is a diprotic acid? Give reason with structure .”

Why sigma bond is stronger than pi bond?

Actually the sigma bond involves head to head overlapping of orbitals, due to which the overlapping takes place on a larger extent. That makes the bond more stronger as compared to pie bond. In pie bond there is a sidewise overlapping of orbitals which leads to lesser extent of overlapping and thus the bond formedContinue reading “Why sigma bond is stronger than pi bond?”

What are the factors that affect Vapour Pressure?

1.Temperature :- With increase in temperature the rate of vaporization also increase thus it creates more pressure. Moreover with increase in temperature the kinetic energy of the vapours also increase. 2. Nature of liquid:- The liquids with lower inter-particulate attractions have high vapour pressure as the formation of vapours is easy . Like acetone isContinue reading “What are the factors that affect Vapour Pressure?”

Semiconductor and its types.

The substances whose conductivity lies between 10-⁶ to 10⁴ ohm-¹ . The range lies between conductors and insulators. Types 1. n-type :- These type of semiconductors have excess electrons present in the lattice that are responsible for the conduction. These are formed when the group 14 elements like Silicon are doped with group 15 elementsContinue reading “Semiconductor and its types.”

Explanation of Paramagnetism, ferromagnetism, ferrimagnetism and antiferromagnetism .

1. Paramagnetism :- This is the phenomenon by which substances are weekly attracted by the magnetic field. It arises because the substances are magnetized in the same direction of the applied magnetic field. This property is shown by the atom, ions or the molecules that contain unpaired electrons. 2. Ferromagnetism:- This is the phenomenon byContinue reading “Explanation of Paramagnetism, ferromagnetism, ferrimagnetism and antiferromagnetism .”

Explanation of Schottky defect, Frankel defect, Interstitial defect and F-centres.

1. Schottky defect:- In this kind of defect equal number of cations and anions are missing from the crystal lattice. Due to this the vacant sites or the holes are present in the lattice. This kind of defect is present in the ionic compounds with high coordination number and equal size of ions. Density ofContinue reading “Explanation of Schottky defect, Frankel defect, Interstitial defect and F-centres.”

What are the Characteristics of a lone pair ?

What are the characteristics of a lone pair? Characteristics of a lone pair Lone pair are the pair of electrons that do not take part in any chemical bond. They affect the symmetry of molecule or the shape of molecule as they interfere with the other electrons of the molecule . The electrons of loneContinue reading “What are the Characteristics of a lone pair ?”

Graphite and Diamond

If diamond and graphite are made of carbon, then why do they look different, and why is diamond harder than graphite? Diamond and graphite are two allotropic forms of Carbon. But still these are very different from one another. 1 Diamond :- In this case each carbon is surrounded by other four carbon atoms inContinue reading “Graphite and Diamond”

What are the Banana Bonds?

What is a ”three centre two electron bond”? These are the type of covalent bonds in which overlapping of orbitals of three atoms take place but sharing only two electrons. These type of bonds that are found in electron deficient molecules. for example in case of BF3 , the molecule exists as a dimer thatContinue reading “What are the Banana Bonds?”


How are reactions related to chemical bonds? The type of bond has a great effect on the rate of reaction or speed of reaction. Here we are going to discuss why and how it happens, First of all in case of ionic compounds:- Lets take example of Sodium hydroxide and Hydrochloric acid NaOH (aq) +Continue reading “WHY THE IONIC REACTIONS ARE FASTER?”


What are azetopes? Azeotropes are the constent boiling mixtures or solutions. it means that these mixtures can not be separated by simple distillation or boiling , because they will have the same composition of mixture even in the vapour state. for example as in case of mixture of nitric acid and water, the highest attainedContinue reading “Azeotropes”

Why are ion-dipole attractions stronger than dipole-dipole attractions?

See the ion is a proper charged particle, but dipole is a neutral olecule  which is having polarity in it . the dipole is having temporary charge where as the ion is having a permanent charge. Now lets see the cases Case 1  :-   Ion – dipole attraction Here a permanent ion is attracting aContinue reading “Why are ion-dipole attractions stronger than dipole-dipole attractions?”

What are some of the most efficient methods of preventing rusting?

Here are the five ways:- Paint the surface of metal. Oil the surface of metal or keep it covered with grease. Electroplating it with a less reactive metal will keep it safe. Galvanisation that is covering it with Zinc metal it is also called sacrificial protection. Making it cathode, most of the underground pipes areContinue reading “What are some of the most efficient methods of preventing rusting?”

What is an electrophile?

See electrophile word is made up by the joining of two words “electro+phile. Electro means the “electron “ and phile means “loving” in short the electrophile is electron loving specie or attacking reagent that attacks only on the part of molecule with high electron density. For example :- H+ , H3O+ , NH4+   and BF3Continue reading “What is an electrophile?”

Why the diastereomers of optically active compounds are optically inactive?

Firstly let us discuss what are optically active compounds? These are the compounds that rotate the plane of polarized light. Now Diastereomers are basically mirror images of two optically active compounds. They rotate the plane of polarized light, either to the left side or to the right. If they are present together, they cancel theContinue reading “Why the diastereomers of optically active compounds are optically inactive?”

What is the difference between molecular mass and formula mass?

In case of ionic compounds we have crystal lattice composed of ions. And there is a never ending pattern of ions and that made it difficult to calculate the molecular mass. Thus we used a simple method by taking the ratio of the ions and then adding their masses, like in case of NaCl ;Continue reading “What is the difference between molecular mass and formula mass?”

What are the characteristics of pure substances in points?

Here are the characteristics of pure substances They are composed of same kind of particles. Can not be solved into its components by physical method. Have characteristic melting and boiling points. All the particles or the bulk show similar chemical and physical behavior.