Actually the word co-ligative itself reveals that (“co” means each other and “ligative” means related) These are the properties which are related to each other. The colligative properties are those properties that depend on the number of solute particles in a solution or a mixture. “These properties don’t depend upon the nature of particles “. Following are the colligative properties:- […]
Why is carbon important for forming complicated molecules? Or why carbon makes a large number of molecules ?
The answer to this question is very simple . There are two major reasons behind it. 1. Catenation :- It is the property by which the carbon can make long chains, branched chains and ring or cylic structural by joining with its own atoms. Due to this it can make a variety of molecules. 2. Tetravalency :- carbon has 4 […]
The outer or valence shell of these elements is complete. And they need not to make any bond. They do not share or transfer the electrons . Due to fully filled orbitals, Their ionisation enthalpies are also very high. So removing an electron from them is also very difficult. The examples of these are Helium, Neon, Argon, Krypton , Xenon […]
Meaning of diprotic acid is that , it can loose two hydronium ions (H+) . For finding how many H+ ions it can give , we have to see its […]
Actually the sigma bond involves head to head overlapping of orbitals, due to which the overlapping takes place on a larger extent. That makes the bond more stronger as compared to pie bond. In pie bond there is a sidewise overlapping of orbitals which leads to lesser extent of overlapping and thus the bond formed is not so strong as […]
1.Temperature :- With increase in temperature the rate of vaporization also increase thus it creates more pressure. Moreover with increase in temperature the kinetic energy of the vapours also increase. 2. Nature of liquid:- The liquids with lower inter-particulate attractions have high vapour pressure as the formation of vapours is easy . Like acetone is easily vaporized as compared to […]
The substances whose conductivity lies between 10-⁶ to 10⁴ ohm-¹ . The range lies between conductors and insulators. Types 1. n-type :- These type of semiconductors have excess electrons present […]
1. Paramagnetism :- This is the phenomenon by which substances are weekly attracted by the magnetic field. It arises because the substances are magnetized in the same direction of the […]
These are the elements that can act as a base as well as an acid. If they react with an acid , they behave as a base . And if they react with a base they behave as an acid . Oxides of aluminum and gallium are amphoteric in nature.
1. Schottky defect:- In this kind 9f defect equal number of cations and anions are missing from the crystal lattice. Due to this the vacant sites or the holes are present in the lattice. This kind of defect is present in the ionic compounds with high coordination number and equal size of ions. Density of the crystal lattice decreases due […]
What are the characteristics of a lone pair? Characteristics of a lone pair Lone pair are the pair of electrons that do not take part in any chemical bond. They affect the symmetry of molecule or the shape of molecule as they interfere with the other electrons of the molecule . The electrons of lone pair repel the other bond […]
If diamond and graphite are made of carbon, then why do they look different, and why is diamond harder than graphite? Diamond and graphite are two allotropic forms of Carbon. […]
What is a ”three centre two electron bond”? These are the type of covalent bonds in which overlapping of orbitals of three atoms take place but sharing only two electrons. These type of bonds that are found in electron deficient molecules. for example in case of BF3 , the molecule exists as a dimer that is B2F6 . Here the […]
How are reactions related to chemical bonds? The type of bond has a great effect on the rate of reaction or speed of reaction. Here we are going to discuss why and how it happens, First of all in case of ionic compounds:- Lets take example of Sodium hydroxide and Hydrochloric acid NaOH (aq) + HCl (aq) → NaCl + […]
What are azetopes? Azeotropes are the constent boiling mixtures or solutions. it means that these mixtures can not be separated by simple distillation or boiling , because they will have the same composition of mixture even in the vapour state. for example as in case of mixture of nitric acid and water, the highest attained concentration of the nitric acid […]
See the ion is a proper charged particle, but dipole is a neutral olecule which is having polarity in it . the dipole is having temporary charge where as the […]
Here are the five ways:- Paint the surface of metal. Oil the surface of metal or keep it covered with grease. Electroplating it with a less reactive metal will keep it safe. Galvanisation that is covering it with Zinc metal it is also called sacrificial protection. Making it cathode, most of the underground pipes are kept safe by connecting them […]
See electrophile word is made up by the joining of two words “electro+phile. Electro means the “electron “ and phile means “loving” in short the electrophile is electron loving specie or attacking reagent that attacks only on the part of molecule with high electron density. For example :- H+ , H3O+ , NH4+ and BF3 etc
Firstly let us discuss what are optically active compounds? These are the compounds that rotate the plane of polarized light. Now Diastereomers are basically mirror images of two optically active compounds. They rotate the plane of polarized light, either to the left side or to the right. If they are present together, they cancel the effect of each other. As […]
In case of ionic compounds we have crystal lattice composed of ions. And there is a never ending pattern of ions and that made it difficult to calculate the molecular mass. Thus we used a simple method by taking the ratio of the ions and then adding their masses, like in case of NaCl ; 23 of Na + 35.5 […]
Here are the characteristics of pure substances They are composed of same kind of particles. Can not be solved into its components by physical method. Have characteristic melting and boiling points. All the particles or the bulk show similar chemical and physical behavior.
Stereoisomers :- These are the compounds that have same molecular formula but different arrangement of atoms in the space. Optical isomers :- The compunds that have same molecular formula but they rotate the plane polarised light to the different side, right side-dextrorotatory and left levorotatory. Enantiomer :- These are the compounds that are mirror images of each other and if […]
For calculation of number of atoms we have to calculate the number of moles present in 1gram carbon. Multiply the number of moles with Avogadro number. Step I Number of moles in 1 gram of carbon = given mass / molar mass Molar mass (molecular or atomic mass expressed in grams) = 12g So the number of mole= 1/12 […]