It is a two step reaction in which 1. di-alkyl benzene is oxidised 2. In step two , the acidic environment helps in providing the Hydronium ions and they easily get converted into a carboxylic acid . Phtahlic Acid is used in various kind of preparations and has a vast industrial applications.
Actually the hydrogen bond is simply a type of attraction which is caused by the the electronegativity difference between hydrogen and highly electronegative element like oxygen carbon nitrogen and fluorine. Intermolecular hydrogen bonding takes place between two molecules having hydrogen and electronegative element. Hydrogen is attracted by the electronegative element of another molecule for example
The answer to this question is very simple . There are two major reasons behind it. 1. Catenation :- It is the property by which the carbon can make long chains, branched chains and ring or cylic structural by joining with its own atoms. Due to this it can make a variety of molecules. 2.
To answer this we have to see the reactive nature of phenol and the substituents attached to it. Acidic behavior of phenol depends on the fact that how easily it can loose a proton and make phenoxide ion which is stabilized by resonance. The methoxy group being electron donating group increases the electron density of
It is the reaction between alkyl halides and sodium in the dry ether to give alkanes with higher number of carbon. 2R-X + 2 Na —> R-R +2NaX
Chlorobenzene and bromobenzene can be prepared by treating bezenediazonium chloride with cuprous chloride or cuprous bromide. This reaction is also called Sandmeyer’s reaction.
1. Schottky defect:- In this kind 9f defect equal number of cations and anions are missing from the crystal lattice. Due to this the vacant sites or the holes are present in the lattice. This kind of defect is present in the ionic compounds with high coordination number and equal size of ions. Density of
A nice question both silicon and carbon belong to group 14 and have 4 electrons in the outermost shell. Their general valency is 4 , but silicon and other elements show higher oxidation states also. Only carbon is the element in group 14 elements that do not have vacant d-orbital. All other elements like silicon
The number of valence electrons in phosphorus is generally 5 and it requires 3 more electrons to complete its octet. but it has an empty d-sub shell in which its electrons can excite and increase its valency from 3 to 5. in the above picture you can easily understand in case of phosphorus , the
Here are the five ways:- Paint the surface of metal. Oil the surface of metal or keep it covered with grease. Electroplating it with a less reactive metal will keep it safe. Galvanisation that is covering it with Zinc metal it is also called sacrificial protection. Making it cathode, most of the underground pipes are
For calculation of number of atoms we have to calculate the number of moles present in 1gram carbon. Multiply the number of moles with Avogadro number. Step I Number of moles in 1 gram of carbon = given mass / molar mass Molar mass (molecular or atomic mass expressed in grams) = 12g So the
1 molecule of H2O has 1 atom of oxygen. Firstly we will calculate the number of atoms in 90g of H2O. we will explain it in two steps:- Step I:- No.of moles of H2O = given mass / molar mass No. of moles = 90/18 = 5 moles No. Of molecules = No. of moles
Here we have 126 AMU of HNO3, Molar mass of HNO3 is 1+14+16×3 = 63amu Number of molecules of HNO3 are = 126/63 = 2 Here we have 2 molecules Each molecule have 3 atoms of oxygen. So no. of oxygen atoms= 3×2 =6 atoms No. Of moles = given particles/ avogadro number No. of
We come across the various kind of mixtures in our daily life that have different kind of components and sometimes we have to separate the components for our benefit and there comes the need of separation in our day to day life. we do separation by using different kind of separating techniques. some techniques Are
Distillation is a type of separating process in which two miscible liquids are separated from each other by using their different boiling points. the one with lower boiling point , boils first and its vapours are passed through a condenser for cooling and droplets are received on the other side in a beaker. this process
Valency :- “It is the combining capacity of an atom”. it also indicates the number of electrons that can be gained , lost or shared . It decides that how many bonds can be formed, it gives the idea of molecule formation and the type of bond formed. calculation of valency is a simple task
The word mole means pile up . This concept originated from a simple problem that was faced by the scientists to calculate the reactions. they needed a concept that could relate number of molecules with the weight. A mole of a substance is equal to as many molecules of that substance as there are number
The need of balancing the chemical equation. The law of conservation of mass , “ Mass can neither be created nor be destroyed during any chemical change”. So the number of atoms on both RHS and LHS must be equal in the chemical equation. We have to check the total number of atoms on RHS
Step 1: write the configuration of element and then show the valence elactrons around the symbol of element . Step2: make the bonds around the atom according to its valency and use the electrons for making the bonds. Step3: Now see if there are any unshared electrons pairs. These are your lone pairs. See the