The reactivity of halogens :- The above order in case of halogens is due to the fact that the size of fluorine is small which makes a strong bond with carbon of alkyl group, thus makes it difficult to break. But on the other hand in case of Iodine the bond between Iodine and CarbonContinue reading “What is the order of reactivity of halogen and alkyl groups in the dehydrohalogenation of alkyl halides to give alkenes ?”
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what does the arrow in a chemical equation mean ?
The arrow in between the chemical equation is an important part of the equation. It depicts that the reactants are converted into products. Or in simple language we can say it shows the conversion of reactants into products. On its left hand side are the reacting species and on its right hand side are theContinue reading “what does the arrow in a chemical equation mean ?”
How many lone pairs of electrons are on the S atom in sulphur tetra floride (SF4) ?
In case of SF4 there are 6 electrons in the outermost shell of Sulphur, out of these 6 electrons, 4 are utilized in bonding with fluorine and thus two unshared electrons are there. Which leads to the lone pair as shown below. Contribute to make this site more informative.
What is hydrogen bond? How does an intermolecular hydrogen bond differ from intramolecular hydrogen bond ?
Actually the hydrogen bond is simply a type of attraction which is caused by the the electronegativity difference between hydrogen and highly electronegative element like oxygen carbon nitrogen and fluorine. Intermolecular hydrogen bonding takes place between two molecules having hydrogen and electronegative element. Hydrogen is attracted by the electronegative element of another molecule for exampleContinue reading “What is hydrogen bond? How does an intermolecular hydrogen bond differ from intramolecular hydrogen bond ?”
Why are the noble gases chemically inert?
The outer or valence shell of these elements is complete. And they need not to make any bond. They do not share or transfer the electrons . Due to fully filled orbitals, Their ionisation enthalpies are also very high. So removing an electron from them is also very difficult. The examples of these are Helium,Continue reading “Why are the noble gases chemically inert?”
Semiconductor and its types.
The substances whose conductivity lies between 10-⁶ to 10⁴ ohm-¹ . The range lies between conductors and insulators. Types 1. n-type :- These type of semiconductors have excess electrons present in the lattice that are responsible for the conduction. These are formed when the group 14 elements like Silicon are doped with group 15 elementsContinue reading “Semiconductor and its types.”
What is the decreasing reactivity order of halogen hydracids (HCl, HI, HBr) for addition reaction of alkenes? Explain.
The decreasing order of reactivity will be as follows:- HI > HBr > HCl In case of reactivity the HI will be the most reactive and then HBr and least reactive will be the HCl. This is due to the fact that the reducing character of Iodine is highest and it can easily break theContinue reading “What is the decreasing reactivity order of halogen hydracids (HCl, HI, HBr) for addition reaction of alkenes? Explain.”
What are the chemical properties of Carboxylic Acids ?
Why we add coolent in the radiator of car ?
How does a radiator of car works? We all are familiar with the coolent that is normally used in radiators but many of us will admit that they don’t know how it works. Well, being a chemistry geek here I will discuss how it works. Ethylene glycol is the liquid that is widely used inContinue reading “Why we add coolent in the radiator of car ?”
What is aldol Condensation ?
Ald + ol Ald- Aldehyde ; ol – Alcohol. As the name suggests , this is a type of reaction which involve the formation of such a molecule which have “alcohol and aldehyde” functional groups.
Why does phosphorus form P4 exists but P2 do not exists?
The P2 molecule of phosphorus is not found because of the larger size of the phosphorus atom. The phosphorus is so larger that the p-orbitals which are required to overlapp sideways , are unable to overlapp sufficiently to make a pie bond. Below is the structure of oxygen atom that is showing π-bond But phosphorusContinue reading “Why does phosphorus form P4 exists but P2 do not exists?”
What are the Banana Bonds?
What is a ”three centre two electron bond”? These are the type of covalent bonds in which overlapping of orbitals of three atoms take place but sharing only two electrons. These type of bonds that are found in electron deficient molecules. for example in case of BF3 , the molecule exists as a dimer thatContinue reading “What are the Banana Bonds?”
WHY THE IONIC REACTIONS ARE FASTER?
How are reactions related to chemical bonds? The type of bond has a great effect on the rate of reaction or speed of reaction. Here we are going to discuss why and how it happens, First of all in case of ionic compounds:- Lets take example of Sodium hydroxide and Hydrochloric acid NaOH (aq) +Continue reading “WHY THE IONIC REACTIONS ARE FASTER?”
Is Br2 an ionic or a covalent bond?
Br2 is a homoatomic molecule, a molecule with same kind of atoms. So here the electronegativity of both the atoms is same so the shared pair is equally attracted by the two atoms. There is not a chance of transfer of electrons from one atom to another. And thus they go for sharing of electronsContinue reading “Is Br2 an ionic or a covalent bond?”
How many atoms are there in 1 gram of carbon?
For calculation of number of atoms we have to calculate the number of moles present in 1gram carbon. Multiply the number of moles with Avogadro number. Step I Number of moles in 1 gram of carbon = given mass / molar mass Molar mass (molecular or atomic mass expressed in grams) = 12g So theContinue reading “How many atoms are there in 1 gram of carbon?”
How many oxygen atoms are there in 90g of H2O molecule?
1 molecule of H2O has 1 atom of oxygen. Firstly we will calculate the number of atoms in 90g of H2O. we will explain it in two steps:- Step I:- No.of moles of H2O = given mass / molar mass No. of moles = 90/18 = 5 moles No. Of molecules = No. of molesContinue reading “How many oxygen atoms are there in 90g of H2O molecule?”
What is the number of moles of O-atom in 126 AMU of HNO3?
Here we have 126 AMU of HNO3, Molar mass of HNO3 is 1+14+16×3 = 63amu Number of molecules of HNO3 are = 126/63 = 2 Here we have 2 molecules Each molecule have 3 atoms of oxygen. So no. of oxygen atoms= 3×2 =6 atoms No. Of moles = given particles/ avogadro number No. ofContinue reading “What is the number of moles of O-atom in 126 AMU of HNO3?”
What is a chemical bond ?
Chemical bond may be defined as the force of attraction by which two atoms are held together. The chemical bonds lead to the formation of molecules and crystals. There are various kind of bonding that we see around us. Covalent bond A covalent bond is formed by mutual sharing of electrons between two atoms. ForContinue reading “What is a chemical bond ?”
Terms related to mass
Atomic mass Atomic mass of an element is the relative mass as compared with an atom of carbon 12 and it is expressed in AMU. A.M.U. AMU is the Atomic mass unit and it is defined as the mass equal to 1 by 12th of the mass of carbon 12 isotope. 1 amu = 1.66056xContinue reading “Terms related to mass”
Distillation and fractional distillation.
Distillation is a type of separating process in which two miscible liquids are separated from each other by using their different boiling points. the one with lower boiling point , boils first and its vapours are passed through a condenser for cooling and droplets are received on the other side in a beaker. this processContinue reading “Distillation and fractional distillation.”
what is valency ? how to calculate it?
Valency :- “It is the combining capacity of an atom”. it also indicates the number of electrons that can be gained , lost or shared . It decides that how many bonds can be formed, it gives the idea of molecule formation and the type of bond formed. calculation of valency is a simple taskContinue reading “what is valency ? how to calculate it?”
Why CH3 group is Ortho and para directing in nature in Toulene ?
IN CASE OF TOLUENE the methyl group attached to the ring, increases the electron density at ortho and para positions by resonance without changing anything at the meta position. Thus the attacking reagent directly attacks at the electron rich site , thus the methyl group is ortho directing. you can easily understand the movement ofContinue reading “Why CH3 group is Ortho and para directing in nature in Toulene ?”
How to revise Digestive system in an easy way?
Human digestive system includes two basic things Alimentary canal 2. Digestive glands 1 Alimentary canal : human alimentary canal is basically a pipe of varying diameter which is designed for the maximum absorption of food. human alimentary canal is complete that is it two different openings for the ingestion of food and excretion of wasteContinue reading “How to revise Digestive system in an easy way?”