What are the methods of preparation of Aldehydes and Ketones ?

What are the methods of preparation of Carboxylic Acids ?

Carboxylic acids are prepared by various methods like oxidation of primary alcohols, oxidation of aldehydes and ketones, hydrolysis of nitriles, grignard reagents, hydrolysis of esters etc.

What is the inert pair effect?

This is the phenomenon which arise due to the inability of inner electrons to take part in the chemical reactions. For example in case of group 15 we have Phosphorus, Arsenic , Tin and Bismuth. They all show the oxidation states of +3 and  +5, but as we move down the group we will seeContinue reading “What is the inert pair effect?”