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How does phosphorus form 5 covalent bonds?

The number of valence electrons in phosphorus is generally 5 and it requires 3 more electrons to complete its octet. but it has an empty d-sub shell in which its electrons can excite and increase its valency from 3 to 5. in the above picture you can easily understand in case of phosphorus , the

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Why CH3 group is Ortho and para directing in? Toulene

IN CASE OF TOLUENE the methyl group attached to the ring, increases the electron density at ortho and para positions by resonance without changing anything at the meta position. Thus the attacking reagent directly attacks at the electron rich site , thus the methyl group is ortho directing. you can easily understand the movement of

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