Which isomer is more steam volatile ortho nitrophenol or para nitrophenol ?

Ortho isomer shows intramolecular hydrogen bonding , in which the H-bonding takes place in a single molecule not with the adjacent molecule. And in that case the molecules exists as discrete molecules or particles only because they are not attached or attracted by each other. Thus their boiling point decreases and they are volatile. But […]

What is hydrogen bond? How does an intermolecular hydrogen bond differ from intramolecular hydrogen bond ?

Actually the hydrogen bond is simply a type of attraction which is caused by the the electronegativity difference between hydrogen and highly electronegative element like oxygen carbon nitrogen and fluorine. Intermolecular hydrogen bonding takes place between two molecules having hydrogen and electronegative element. Hydrogen is attracted by the electronegative element of another molecule for example […]

What is gold number ?

It is the amount of lyophilic sol required in milligrams to prevent the the coagulation of 10ml gold sol by the addition of 1 ml, 10% NaCl solution .

Why the electron affinity or electron gain enthalpy of Chlorine is higher than Fluorine ? Even if Fluorine is most electronegative element.

Even if the Fluorine is most electronegative element still its electron gain enthalpy is lower than Chlorine. In case of Fluorine the size of valence shell is so small that the upcoming electron experiences repulsions so it is not practically easy for Fluorine to gain an electron as compared to Chlorine. On other hand in […]

What are Colligative properties ?

Actually the word co-ligative itself reveals that (“co” means each other and “ligative” means related) These are the properties which are related to each other. The colligative properties are those properties that depend on the number of solute particles in a solution or a mixture. “These properties don’t depend upon the nature of particles “. […]

Why are the noble gases chemically inert?

The outer or valence shell of these elements is complete. And they need not to make any bond. They do not share or transfer the electrons . Due to fully filled orbitals, Their ionisation enthalpies are also very high. So removing an electron from them is also very difficult. The examples of these are Helium, […]

Why ortho-nitrophenol is more acidic than ortho-methoxy phenol ?

To answer this we have to see the reactive nature of phenol and the substituents attached to it. Acidic behavior of phenol depends on the fact that how easily it can loose a proton and make phenoxide ion which is stabilized by resonance. The methoxy group being electron donating group increases the electron density of […]

Why white phosphorus is more reactive than red phosphorus?

White phosphorus exists in p4 molecule. In the molecular strain is quite high and it tends to break it as early as possible. On the other hand red phosphorus exists as polymer like structure. In red phosphorus the molecules join to make long chains and that makes them chemically inert or less reactive. For study […]

Why H3PO3 is a diprotic acid? Give reason with structure .

Meaning of diprotic acid is that , it can loose two hydronium ions (H+) . For finding how many H+ ions it can give , we have to see its structure. Here it have only two hydroxyl groups that is -OH groups, and the hydrogen atoms joined to these only are ionisable. So only these […]

Wurtz reaction

It is the reaction between alkyl halides and sodium in the dry ether to give alkanes with higher number of carbon. 2R-X + 2 Na —> R-R +2NaX

Why sigma bond is stronger than pi bond?

Actually the sigma bond involves head to head overlapping of orbitals, due to which the overlapping takes place on a larger extent. That makes the bond more stronger as compared to pie bond. In pie bond there is a sidewise overlapping of orbitals which leads to lesser extent of overlapping and thus the bond formed […]

What are the factors that affect Vapour Pressure?

1.Temperature :- With increase in temperature the rate of vaporization also increase thus it creates more pressure. Moreover with increase in temperature the kinetic energy of the vapours also increase. 2. Nature of liquid:- The liquids with lower inter-particulate attractions have high vapour pressure as the formation of vapours is easy . Like acetone is […]

Why glass is considered as super cooled liquid ?

It is an amorphous solid. In these kind of solids the particles are not properly arranged and it is assumed that the particles do not get enough time to set into a proper arrangement. So these are considered as super cooled liquids.

Coordination number

It is the number of lattice points touching one lattice point in a crystalline solid. For example in case of Sodium chloride it is 6 . 

Explanation of Paramagnetism, ferromagnetism, ferrimagnetism and antiferromagnetism .

1. Paramagnetism :- This is the phenomenon by which substances are weekly attracted by the magnetic field. It arises because the substances are magnetized in the same direction of the applied magnetic field. This property is shown by the atom, ions or the molecules that contain unpaired electrons. 2. Ferromagnetism:- This is the phenomenon by […]

Amphoteric elements

These are the elements that can act as a base as well as an acid. If they react with an acid , they behave as a base . And if they react with a base they behave as an acid . Oxides of aluminum and gallium are amphoteric in nature.

Calculation of edge length and radius of atom.

Calculate the radius of copper atom if it crystallise in face centred cubic lattice and has a density of 8.93 g / cm cube. Solution Structure given = fcc For fcc , Z = 4 Density , d = 8.93 Molar mass , M = 63.55 Avogadro number = 6.2×10^23 Use the given formula In […]

What is aldol Condensation ?

Ald + ol Ald- Aldehyde ; ol – Alcohol. As the name suggests , this is a type of reaction which involve the formation of such a molecule which have “alcohol and aldehyde” functional groups.

What is Perkin reaction ?

Perkin reaction This reaction is used in the synthesis of β-aryl-acrylic acid. This reaction is mostly used for the prepration of cinnamic acid. Coumerin, a flavouring agent is also prepared by this method.

How can I calculate the number of carbon atoms in 10 gm of sugar?

for this you have to see the molecule of sugar. and calculate number of moles. The formula of sugar , sucrose C12H22O11 , molar mass = 342 According to above molecular formula. Now lets calculate the number of moles in 10 grams of sugar. Number of moles = given mass / molar mass Number of […]

What is the inert pair effect?

This is the which arise due to the inability of inner electrons to take part in the chemical reactions. For example in case of group 15 we have Phosphorus, Arsenic , Tin and Bismuth. They all show the oxidation states of +3 and  +5, but as we move down the group we will see that […]

Why does phosphorus form P4 exists but P2 do not exists?

The P2 molecule of phosphorus is not found because of the larger size of the phosphorus atom. The phosphorus is so larger that the p-orbitals which are required to overlapp sideways , are unable to overlapp sufficiently to make a pie bond. Below is the structure of oxygen atom that is showing π-bond But phosphorus […]

What is a Covalent bond ? / how a covalent bond is formed ?

This is the bond formed by mutual sharing of electrons between two atoms. The sharing between two atoms allow each atom to have a noble gas like a configuration. Single Double,triple ,covalent bonds. Single Covalent bond This kind of bond is formed by sharing of only one pair of electrons between the two atoms like […]

What are the Types of covalent bonds?

On the basis of polarity , the covalent bonds can be of two types :- 1 Nonpolar covalent bond When covalent bond is formed between two similar atoms for example between hydrogen and hydrogen H2, between oxygen oxygen O2, between chlorine chlorine Cl2  , the shared pair of electrons is attracted by both atoms  with […]

Characteristics of a lone pair

What are the characteristics of a lone pair? Characteristics of a lone pair Lone pair are the pair of electrons that do not take part in any chemical bond. They affect the symmetry of molecule or the shape of molecule as they interfere with the other electrons of the molecule . The electrons of lone […]

Graphite and Diamond

If diamond and graphite are made of carbon, then why do they look different, and why is diamond harder than graphite? Diamond and graphite are two allotropic forms of Carbon. But still these are very different from one another. 1 Diamond :- In this case each carbon is surrounded by other four carbon atoms in […]

[SiF6]2- exist but [CF6]2- does not, why?

A nice question both silicon and carbon belong to group 14 and have 4 electrons in the outermost shell. Their general valency is 4 , but silicon and other elements show higher oxidation states also. Only carbon is the element in group 14 elements that do not have vacant d-orbital. All other elements like silicon […]

Banana Bonds

What is a ”three centre two electron bond”? These are the type of covalent bonds in which overlapping of orbitals of three atoms take place but sharing only two electrons. These type of bonds that are found in electron deficient molecules. for example in case of BF3 , the molecule exists as a dimer that […]


How are reactions related to chemical bonds? The type of bond has a great effect on the rate of reaction or speed of reaction. Here we are going to discuss why and how it happens, First of all in case of ionic compounds:- Lets take example of Sodium hydroxide and Hydrochloric acid NaOH (aq) + […]

Why is an ionic bond not double or triple like a covalent bond?

To understand this we have to go in depth , that how the ionic bond is formed? Ionic bond is a bond basically formed due to strong electrostatic forces of attraction which is totally different from the covalent bond. Ionic bond is formed between atoms with very different  ionisation energy and electron affinity. This situation […]


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About Me

Hi, I’m Ankush Sharma. post graduate in chemistry and organic chemistry specialist

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