Neil Bartlett a chemical scientist, was studying the properties of Xenon, at that time he started comparing the ionisation enthalpies of Xenon with other elements. when he compared Ionisation enthalpy of Xenon (1170 kj/mol) with Oxygen (1175 kj/mol) , he found that these are almost identical. Oxygen on treatment with PtF6 gave O2PtF6 , this lead
In case of halogens , all the elements require only one electron to complete their outer shell. The general electronic configuration of halogens is ns2np5 which shows it has a high tendency to gain an electron. and a good oxidising agent is that which can gain electrons from the substrate or other element or ion.
Electron density is the main reason behind this. In case of oxygen the size is smaller and electroneagativity is high. Due to this the electron density is high in case of oxygen. but in case of chlorine , the size of chlorine being larger, distributes the electrons in larger field and this decreases the electron
Halogens ,the elements of group 17, show colour because of a simple phenomenon. The electrons present in the outermost shell absorb energy in the visible spectrum for the excitation of electrons from lower energy shell to the higher energy shell. as they are absorbing light from the visible spectrum thus they show the corresponding colour.
Here is the list of oxo-acids of sulphur :- (i) Thiosulphuric Acid – H2S2O3 (ii) Pyrosulphuric Acid – H2S2O7 (iii) Thiopersulphuric Acid – H2S2O4 (iv) Sulphuric Acid – H2SO4 (v) Peroxodisulphuric Acid – H2S2O8 (vi) Sulphurous Acid – H2SO3 (vii) Peroxomonosulphuric Acid – H2SO5 (viii) Dithiopersulphuric Acid – H2S2O5
It is the process that is utilized to obtain pure Nickel from the impure Nickel. In this method we react the nickel with carbon-monoxide at about 60 to 80 degree Celsius, to get a carbonyl compound which is volatile in nature, the impurities can not make the volatile compund , so here they get separated.
This type of method is usually used for the metal ores that are lighter than the gangue particles, especially the sulphide ores. For example Copper pyrite (ore of copper) and Argentite (ore of silver). In this method the preferential wetting properties of the ore with the frothing agent and the water is utilised. The sulphide
It is a method of refining of metals with impurities. The principal of this method is simply based on a fact that the impurities present in the metals are more soluble in the molten state. In this technique the metal rod is exposed to a ring like heater that surrounds the metal rod, the heater
In case of PCl5 the bond pairs present on the axial position suffer more repulsion than that of bond pairs present on the equatorial position. Actually each bond pair present at the axial position has to face the repulsion of three equatorial bond pairs, due to this the bond is stretched and hence the bond
In case of hydrogen iodide the bond length is larger as compared to hydrogen fluoride. As the size of fluorine is smaller than iodine, the bond between hydrogen and fluorine is stronger and have lower bond length. This makes it harder to break the bond and release H+ ions. But in case of Hydrogen iodide
These are the ligands that have more than one sites for donation of pair of electrons. Or simply the ligands that have more than one donor atom. For example EDTA, ethylene-di-amine
1. Zinc blende – ZnS 2. Calamine – ZnCO3 Uses of Zinc metal. The zinc metal is used for the manufacture of dying or painting , also for galvanization of iron. It is also used as the outer cover of dry cell and as a cathode also. Ores of copper and their uses Copper pyrites
Error is the difference between calculated value and theoretical value. It is very difficult to totally eliminate the errors, but we can minimize them. The errors depend upon the person which is handling the apparatus and also upon the precision of the instrument. (I) Types of Errors on the basis of nature of errors. 1.
To understand this topic we have to see the structures of both by taking simple examples. CH3CONH2 – Amide and CH3CH2NH2 –Amine here as it is clear in the upper structures, on case of amides, the nitrogen atom is joined with oxygen. being more electron attracting , the oxygen decreases the electron density on
Originally posted on The Unconditional Guru:
In case of aniline we have NH2 group attached to it which acts as a deactivating group towards the electrophilic substitution reaction. Moreover it behaves as Lewis base on reacting with AlCl3 . As shown below. C6H5NH2 + AlCl3→ C6H5N+H2AlCl3+
In case of aniline we have NH2 group attached to it which acts as a deactivating group towards the electrophilic substitution reaction. Moreover it behaves as Lewis base on reacting with AlCl3 . As shown below. C6H5NH2 + AlCl3 → C6H5N+H2AlCl3+
The strength of an acid depends upon the oxidation state of the central atom. More is the oxidation state higher is the acidic character. In case of HClO4(perchloric acid) the oxidation state of chlorine is +7. And in case of H2SO4 (sulphuric acid) the oxidation state of Sulphur is +6 . The oxidation state of
Void is the empty space present in the crystal lattice. It is the unoccupied space in between the lattice points. There are:- 1. Tetrahedral void 2. Octahedral void
Step 1 : Assume the percentage as grams and divide it with molar mass. Step 2: By this way you have calculated the number of moles , further divide evey term with the smallest term which you have calculated in step 1. Step 3 : Now you have the simple whole number ratio of elements
The behaviour of ketones and aldehydes can be easily understood from their structures as shown below. From these structures two major points come in front of us: 1. The ketones have alkyl groups on both the side of carbonyl group, creating steric hindrance for the nucleophile to attack over there. But in aldehyde , the
In case of benzoic acid the COOH group that is carboxylic group , is attached to benzene ring which is electron withdrawing in nature. On the other hand in case of ethanoic acid we have alkyl group attached to the carboxylic group which is electron releasing in nature thus it decreases the acidic character by
In case of carboxylic acids the negative charge is on the more electronegative element that is oxygen as shown in the structure in both of the resonating structures. The negative charge on the more electronegative element makes it more stable. And thus it shows acidic character easily. But in case of phenols the negative charge
The tollen’s reagent test is used to differentiate aldehydes from the ketones.