Carboxylic acids are prepared by various methods like oxidation of primary alcohols, oxidation of aldehydes and ketones, hydrolysis of nitriles, grignard reagents, hydrolysis of esters etc.
Stereoisomers:- these are the compounds that have same molecular formula but different arrangement of atoms in the space. Optical isomers:- the compunds that have same molecular formula but they rotate the plane polarised light to the different side, right side-dextrorotatory and left levorotatory. Enantiomer:- these are the compounds that are mirror images of each other
Firstly let us discuss what are optically active compounds? These are the compounds that rotate the plane of polarized light. Now Diastereomers are basically mirror images of two optically active compounds. They rotate the plane of polarized light, either to the left side or to the right. If they are present together, they cancel the
1. Co-ordination number Number of spheres touching one Sphere in a close packed structure is called co-ordination number of a lattice 2. Unit cell The smallest repeating pattern in a crystal lattice is called a unit cell. Characteristics of unit cell Are unit cell has a characteristic dimensions along the three edges a,b,c and interfacial
Ald + ol Ald- Aldehyde ; ol – Alcohol. As the name suggests , this is a type of reaction which involve the formation of such a molecule which have “alcohol and aldehyde” functional groups.
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