These are prepared under anhydrous conditions as they easily react with water to give following reaction :-
The alkyl halides are polar in nature , but the molecules in them are strongly held by the hydrogen bonds formed between H and X (halide = F, Cl, Br atoms). these bonds are not easily broken, a lot of energy is required to break this interaction. Even the heat released at the time of
There are two major aspects that can explain this :- The C-Cl bond in case of chlorobenzene is having some double bond like character , which is indicated by its shorter bond length. thus it indicates the back-flow of electrons from the Chlorine to the Carbon. Thus the polarity decreases and it shows non polar
The nucleophiles which can attack from more than one sides (sites) or which have more than one elecron rich sites are called ambident nucleophiles .
It can be easily learned by Fazan’s rule that ion with more charge/radius ratio has more polarizing power. Now in case of pentahalides +5 , the charge/radius ratio is higher than +3, thus pentahalides have more polarizing power , thus it shows covalent character.
There are certain reactions that complete in a series of small steps , each complementary step is called an elementary step . and such reaction is called a complex reaction.
the rate constant is a constant term , whose value does not change with change in concentration . thus the value of k doesn’t change.
The Rate of rusting of iron depends upon the availability of H+ ions , more the ions more will be the rusting. But if we provide the alkaline medium , it will decrease the concentration of H+ ions. Thus the iron will not be oxidized from Fe to Fe2+ .
The discharge potential of Al3+ ion is higher than that of H+ , thus if we are using the aqueous solution of aluminium salt the hydronium ions are preferably discharged giving H2 gas at cathode and Al will remain in the solution. Thus we can not get Aluminium metal by electrolysis.
Rusting of iron is an electrochemical process , the presence of any ion facilitates the formation of rust. In saline water the presence of Na+ and Cl– ions increase the conductivity of the top layer of the iron , forming the Fe2+ ions . Thus the formation of Fe2O3 X H2O takes place quickly.
A metal with lower electrode potential can easily displace the metal with higher electrode potential from its salt solution . here are the metals arranged in their increasing order :- Mg , Al , Zn , Fe , Cu
Zero Pt , H2 1(atm) / H+ (1M) ; E0 = 0
Standard hydrogen electrode is the hydrogen electrode whose electrode potential is zero. half cell equation for this is as given below :- Pt , H2 1(atm) / H+ (1M) ; E0 = 0
This is due to a simple fact that the gasses dissolve in cold water, as the temperature of water rises the dissolution rate of gases in water decreases. Animals need oxygen gas for respiration . which is easily available at the time of winter but during summer less gas is available for the respiration .
reverse osmosis is used in water filteration. in desalination of salty water in the purification of blood at the condition of kidney failure
This happens due to the fact that the intermolecular forces between the particles of mixture are lower than that of the pure liquids. In this case the attractions between the A-B particles are lower than that of A-A interactions and B-B interactions.
This happens due to the fact that the intermolecular forces between the particles of mixture are higher than that of the pure liquids. In this case the attractions between the A-B particles are higher than that of A-A interactions and B-B interactions.
It is a colligative property because the osmotic pressure is directly proportional to the number of solute particles.
the homogeneous solution of two substances is called a solution. Solute and solvent are the two parts of a solution . Solvent :- it is the component of the solution which is present in large amount. Solute :- it is the component of the solution which is present in small amount. Classification on the basis
It is the process of conversion of freshly prepared peresipitate into colloidal state by the addition of proper electrolyte.
The colloidal particles are charged in nature, thus on the application of electric field, the particles move towards the opposite pole and get neutralise and finally accumulate on the electrodes . This whole process is known as Electrophoresis .
Here is the answer :- Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3
Here is the formula :- [PtCl₂(en)₂](NO3)2