Hardy-Schulze rule It has two postulates (i) The ions which carry charge opposite to the particles of sol are more effective in causing the coagulation of the solution. (ii) Coagulating power of an electrolyte is directly proportional to the fourth power of the valency of the ions causing coagulation.
The coordinate bond is formed by the overlapping of d-orbital of Central metal atom and the ligands. The d-orbitals are enough large that there is not any chance of repulsion between the resulting bond formation between the ligand and the metal atom. Thus there isn’t any repulsion.
On addition of gelatin , the gold solution starts behaving like a lyophilic colloid . Otherwise the gold solution is lyophillic colliod.
The process of converting a precipitate into a colloidal solution by shaking vigorously with a small amount of electrolyte. The electrolyte used here for creating a colloidal solution is called the peptising agent .
Lyos – solution, phobic – hating(fear) Firstly in this case we have to understand that the lyophobic colloids are those in which the dispersed phase do not have affinity for the dispersion medium. So if we add any suitable electrolyte in it , the colloidal solution easily gets coagulated.
Hi guys today we are going to talk about the white trail formation during the winter, when an aeroplane flies. To understand this phenomenon we must be aware of the […]
When electric potential is applied across two platinum electrodes which are dipped in a colloidal solution, the colloidal particles move towards the electrodes. This movement of particles on application of electric potential is called electrophoresis.
Multimolecular colloids are formed when the molecules of dispersed phase aggregate to make a molecule which is having the size between 1nm to 1000nm. The point to note here is , the particles of colloidal solution were of molecular size which joined to make Multimolecular system. Macromolecular colloids are the substances in which the size of particles is 1nm to […]
The particles of atmosphere which are of colloidal size can easily scatter the blue component of the light. The wavelength of blue light allows its scattering easily. That’s why it […]
The shielding effect , is seen when the electrons of inner shells shield the outer shell electrons from the nuclear charge. And this decreases the effective nuclear charge for the […]
What are isoelectric species? And What determines the difference in the size of atoms or ions if they are isoelectronic ?
Isoelectric species are simply the atoms or ions that have same number of electrons. For example:- Na+ , Ne , F- , O²- , Mg²+ And their size depends upon the effective nuclear charge , in case of cations the number of protons is higher than that of electrons thus their size is smaller than that of neutral atom. For […]
This happens because of corrosion of copper , as the copper is exposed to air it reacts slowly with water from the moisture present in air, carbondioxide and oxygen. And […]
In case of SF4 there are 6 electrons in the outermost shell of Sulphur, out of these 6 electrons, 4 are utilized in bonding with fluorine and thus two unshared […]
Ortho isomer shows intramolecular hydrogen bonding , in which the H-bonding takes place in a single molecule not with the adjacent molecule. And in that case the molecules exists as […]
Which of the following has the largest number of atoms (A. 1g of H2 B. 1g of O2 C. 1g of N2 D. 1g of F2)?
2g of H2 = 1mole = 6.022 x 10²³molecules So 1 g of H2 will have = 1/2 mole = 6.022 x 10²³ / 2molecules Number of atoms in hydrogen molecule = 2 Number of atoms in 1 g of H2 = 3.011 x 10²³ 32 g of O2 = 1 mole = 6.022 x 10²³molecules 1 g of O2 […]
Why is Krypton larger in size than bromine,even if atomic radius decreases while going from left to right across a period?
In case of Krypton being and inert gas it do not make any Bond and remains as as a single molecule due to this we calculate the Van der waal’s radius in case of these . Which is always larger as compared to other elements. But in case of bromine we calculate the ionic radius or covalent radius which is […]
What is hydrogen bond? How does an intermolecular hydrogen bond differ from intramolecular hydrogen bond ?
Actually the hydrogen bond is simply a type of attraction which is caused by the the electronegativity difference between hydrogen and highly electronegative element like oxygen carbon nitrogen and fluorine. […]
It is the amount of lyophilic sol required in milligrams to prevent the the coagulation of 10ml gold sol by the addition of 1 ml, 10% NaCl solution .
Why the electron affinity or electron gain enthalpy of Chlorine is higher than Fluorine ? Even if Fluorine is most electronegative element.
Even if the Fluorine is most electronegative element still its electron gain enthalpy is lower than Chlorine. In case of Fluorine the size of valence shell is so small that the upcoming electron experiences repulsions so it is not practically easy for Fluorine to gain an electron as compared to Chlorine. On other hand in case 9f Chlorine the outer […]
Actually the word co-ligative itself reveals that (“co” means each other and “ligative” means related) These are the properties which are related to each other. The colligative properties are those properties that depend on the number of solute particles in a solution or a mixture. “These properties don’t depend upon the nature of particles “. Following are the colligative properties:- […]
Organic inter-conversions , Propene to 1-nitropropane,ethane to bromoethane, ethanol to but-1-yne, Propene to propyne, toluene to benzyl alcohol.
Why is carbon important for forming complicated molecules? Or why carbon makes a large number of molecules ?
The answer to this question is very simple . There are two major reasons behind it. 1. Catenation :- It is the property by which the carbon can make long chains, branched chains and ring or cylic structural by joining with its own atoms. Due to this it can make a variety of molecules. 2. Tetravalency :- carbon has 4 […]
The outer or valence shell of these elements is complete. And they need not to make any bond. They do not share or transfer the electrons . Due to fully filled orbitals, Their ionisation enthalpies are also very high. So removing an electron from them is also very difficult. The examples of these are Helium, Neon, Argon, Krypton , Xenon […]