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Category: chemistry

Here you can see random topics related to chemistry.

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Azeotropes

What are azetopes? Azeotropes are the constent boiling mixtures or solutions. it means that these mixtures can not be separated by simple distillation or boiling , because they will have the same composition of mixture even in the vapour state. for example as in case of mixture of nitric acid and water, the highest attained concentration of the nitric acid […]

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Bond angles of PF3 and PCl3

In case of PF3 the size of F is small and thus it approaches near to the central atom that is P. as it approaches near to P there comes the repulsion between the bond pairs, which widens the bond angle and makes it larger than in case of PCl3. Here two types of forces are deployed Bond pair – […]

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How does phosphorus form 5 covalent bonds?

The number of valence electrons in phosphorus is generally 5 and it requires 3 more electrons to complete its octet. but it has an empty d-sub shell in which its electrons can excite and increase its valency from 3 to 5. in the above picture you can easily understand in case of phosphorus , the electron from s-subshell jumps to […]

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Why does a covalent bond not form a crystal lattice?

Covalent bond and ionic bond has a very basic difference that is presence of ions or not. The ionic bonds are not limited to one ion only, actually they keep on joining again and again because they are held together by basically the electrostatic forces, due to the oppositely charged ions. lets take example of NaCl molecule. The positively charged […]

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Is Br2 an ionic or a covalent bond?

Br2  is a homoatomic molecule, a molecule with same kind of atoms. So here the electronegativity of both the atoms is same so the shared pair is equally attracted by the two atoms. There is not a chance of transfer of electrons from one atom to another. And thus they go for sharing of electrons only to satisfy their valencies. […]

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Covalent bonds versus ionic bonds.

There are two types of bonds that can be formed Either by sharing of electrons , that is covalent bond. Or 2. By transfer of electrons , that is ionic bond. Now the question is that , why to go for covalent bond? An important aspect of ionic bond is that the difference of electronegativity between the two elements must […]

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What is an electrophile?

See electrophile word is made up by the joining of two words “electro+phile. Electro means the “electron “ and phile means “loving” in short the electrophile is electron loving specie or attacking reagent that attacks only on the part of molecule with high electron density. For example :- H+ , H3O+ , NH4+   and BF3 etc

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How is the total valency of any compound zero?

Total valency of a compound is zero. Before starting the topic lets talk about valency. Valency  is the combining capacity of an atom or element. Now if the element is having a valency = 2, It means it can make two bonds, Now if two bonds are made,  will it have a capacity to join further? No, it can’t make […]

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Why is a Cl-Cl bond stronger than an F-F bond?

This is due to the following two major reasons :- The fluorine atoms are very small in size . The florine element is having the highest electronegativity. Due to these two reasons the florine atoms are so near after the F-F bonding that the start repelling each other due to higher electron desity, which makes it easy to break the […]

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What is the difference between stereoisomers, optical isomers and enantiomers?

Stereoisomers :- These are the compounds that have same molecular formula but different arrangement of atoms in the space. Optical isomers :- The compunds that have same molecular formula but they rotate the plane polarised light to the different side, right side-dextrorotatory and left levorotatory. Enantiomer :- These are the compounds that are mirror images of each other and if […]

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What is a racemic mixture?

On the basis of Optical activity the compounds or isomers can be classified into two types:- Those rotate the plane polarised light towards right called the dextro rotatory compounds. Those rotate the plane polarised light towards left are called Laevo rotatory compounds. The equimolar composition of the above two isomers is called racemic mixture.