What is Wurtz reaction?

It is the reaction between alkyl halides and sodium in the dry ether to give alkanes with higher number of carbon. 2R-X + 2 Na —> R-R +2NaX

Explanation of Paramagnetism, ferromagnetism, ferrimagnetism and antiferromagnetism .

1. Paramagnetism :- This is the phenomenon by which substances are weekly attracted by the magnetic field. It arises because the substances are magnetized in the same direction of the applied magnetic field. This property is shown by the atom, ions or the molecules that contain unpaired electrons. 2. Ferromagnetism:- This is the phenomenon byContinue reading “Explanation of Paramagnetism, ferromagnetism, ferrimagnetism and antiferromagnetism .”

Which set of elements has a strong tendency to form cations? Or which of the elements are the most electropositive elements?

The elements belonging to Group 1 and group 2 of periodic table has the strong tendency to form cations. The reason behind this tendency is that the elements belonging to group 1 and 2 have one and two valance electrons respectively. By loosing the valence electrons, they will aquire noble gas configuration. It is easyContinue reading “Which set of elements has a strong tendency to form cations? Or which of the elements are the most electropositive elements?”

What are the chemical properties of Carboxylic Acids ?

The shyness

Today me and my friend were out on an evening walk. There we saw an insect with a different look. We wished to have a photo 📷 of that. But as we clicked the first picture he became camera conscious and started moving away from the camera. After a lot of patience we succeeded inContinue reading “The shyness”

What is aldol Condensation ?

Ald + ol Ald- Aldehyde ; ol – Alcohol. As the name suggests , this is a type of reaction which involve the formation of such a molecule which have “alcohol and aldehyde” functional groups.

Why does phosphorus form P4 exists but P2 do not exists?

The P2 molecule of phosphorus is not found because of the larger size of the phosphorus atom. The phosphorus is so larger that the p-orbitals which are required to overlapp sideways , are unable to overlapp sufficiently to make a pie bond. Below is the structure of oxygen atom that is showing π-bond But phosphorusContinue reading “Why does phosphorus form P4 exists but P2 do not exists?”

What are the Characteristics of a lone pair ?

What are the characteristics of a lone pair? Characteristics of a lone pair Lone pair are the pair of electrons that do not take part in any chemical bond. They affect the symmetry of molecule or the shape of molecule as they interfere with the other electrons of the molecule . The electrons of loneContinue reading “What are the Characteristics of a lone pair ?”

Azeotropes

What are azetopes? Azeotropes are the constent boiling mixtures or solutions. it means that these mixtures can not be separated by simple distillation or boiling , because they will have the same composition of mixture even in the vapour state. for example as in case of mixture of nitric acid and water, the highest attainedContinue reading “Azeotropes”

Bond angles of PF3 and PCl3

In case of PF3 the size of F is small and thus it approaches near to the central atom that is P. as it approaches near to P there comes the repulsion between the bond pairs, which widens the bond angle and makes it larger than in case of PCl3. Here two types of forcesContinue reading “Bond angles of PF3 and PCl3”

What are the tricks to learn reaction of sodium carbonate with hydrochloric acid?

There is a trick in learning this reaction I will make it very easy for you to learn and rewrite. Firstly see the reaction:- Na2CO3 + 2HCl → 2NaCl + CO2 + H2O Tricks to learn:– Firstly see the formula of carbonate its CO3 , this will be converted into CO2 , One oxygen ofContinue reading “What are the tricks to learn reaction of sodium carbonate with hydrochloric acid?”

Why are ion-dipole attractions stronger than dipole-dipole attractions?

See the ion is a proper charged particle, but dipole is a neutral olecule  which is having polarity in it . the dipole is having temporary charge where as the ion is having a permanent charge. Now lets see the cases Case 1  :-   Ion – dipole attraction Here a permanent ion is attracting aContinue reading “Why are ion-dipole attractions stronger than dipole-dipole attractions?”

What is the difference between molecular mass and formula mass?

In case of ionic compounds we have crystal lattice composed of ions. And there is a never ending pattern of ions and that made it difficult to calculate the molecular mass. Thus we used a simple method by taking the ratio of the ions and then adding their masses, like in case of NaCl ;Continue reading “What is the difference between molecular mass and formula mass?”

What is the hybridisation of Cl2? Is it different from the hybridisation of F2 molecules?

Here you can see the hybridization of both is same , both of these two elements have seven electrons in outermost shell and below is the diagram showing the electrons filled in s-subshell and p-subshell . one orbital of s- subshell and three orbitals of p-subshell are used during hybridisation. So the type of hybridizationContinue reading “What is the hybridisation of Cl2? Is it different from the hybridisation of F2 molecules?”

What is a chemical bond ?

Chemical bond may be defined as the force of attraction by which two atoms are held together. The chemical bonds lead to the formation of molecules and crystals. There are various kind of bonding that we see around us. Covalent bond A covalent bond is formed by mutual sharing of electrons between two atoms. ForContinue reading “What is a chemical bond ?”

Terms related to mass

Atomic mass Atomic mass of an element is the relative mass as compared with an atom of carbon 12 and it is expressed in AMU. A.M.U. AMU is the Atomic mass unit and it is defined as the mass equal to 1 by 12th of the mass of carbon 12 isotope. 1 amu = 1.66056xContinue reading “Terms related to mass”

Various separating methods

We come across the various kind of mixtures in our daily life that have different kind of components and sometimes we have to separate the components for our benefit and there comes the need of separation in our day to day life.  we do separation by using different kind of separating techniques. some techniques AreContinue reading “Various separating methods”

Neutralisation reaction

The reaction between an acid and base to give salt and water is called neutralisation reaction. here in the following reaction we can easily see how Hydrochloric acid is reacting with sodium chloride NaOH + HCl ———> NaCl + H2O the nature of salt formed is dependent on the type of acid or base , ifContinue reading “Neutralisation reaction”

Full explanation of mole concept.

The word mole means pile up . This concept originated from a simple problem that was faced by the scientists to calculate the reactions. they needed a concept that could relate number of molecules with the weight. A mole of a substance is equal to as many molecules of that substance as there are numberContinue reading “Full explanation of mole concept.”