Explanation of Paramagnetism, ferromagnetism, ferrimagnetism and antiferromagnetism .

1. Paramagnetism :- This is the phenomenon by which substances are weekly attracted by the magnetic field. It arises because the substances are magnetized in the same direction of the applied magnetic field.

This property is shown by the atom, ions or the molecules that contain unpaired electrons.

2. Ferromagnetism:- This is the phenomenon by which the substances are strongly attracted by the magnetic field. For example iron, nickel and chromium etc. These substances can permanently retain the magnetic characteristics if they are magnetized properly.

The magnetic property is due to the alignment of electrons in the same direction. As shown below.

3. Ferrimagnetism:- It is the phenomenon by which the substances show very less magnetic moment even with the presence of unpaired electrons. This phenomenon Arise due to the alignment of some of the electrons in opposite direction resulting in decrease in the magnetic moment.

4. Anti-ferromagnetic substances:- This is the phenomenon by which the substances show zero magnetic moment, due to the alignment of direction of unpaired electrons in such a way that they cancel the effect of each other. As shown below

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