Step 1: write the configuration of element and then show the valence elactrons around the symbol of element .

Step2: make the bonds around the atom according to its valency and use the electrons for making the bonds.

Step3: Now see if there are any unshared electrons pairs.

These are your lone pairs.

See the picture, examples depict the lone pairs of oxygen and nitrogen. Here are some examples: Ammonia and Water molecules , in ammonia Nitrogen is having one lone pair and in water Oxygen atom is having two lone pairs respectively.

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