IN CASE OF TOLUENE the methyl group attached to the ring, increases the electron density at ortho and para positions by resonance without changing anything at the meta position. Thus the attacking reagent directly attacks at the electron rich site , thus the methyl group is ortho directing. you can easily understand the movement of electrons by following the direction of arrows in structures (I), (II) and (III). there is not any structure where the electrons can be seen on meta position.
Why CH3 group is Ortho and para directing in nature in Toulene ?
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