This is the bond formed by mutual sharing of electrons between two atoms.
The sharing between two atoms allow each atom to have a noble gas like a configuration.
Single Double,triple ,covalent bonds.
Single Covalent bond
This kind of bond is formed by sharing of only one pair of electrons between the two atoms like hydrogen molecule.
Double Covalent bond
this kind of bond is formed by sharing of two pairs of electrons between two atoms for example oxygen molecule.
This kind of bond is found by sharing of three pairs of electrons between two atoms for example nitrogen molecule N2. and this bond is one of the strongest bond, that’s why the nitrogen is sometimes used for creating inert conditions. the bond dissociation enthalpy of nitrogen molecule is 945 Kj/mol .
Characteristics of covalent compounds
- Normally the covalent compounds are liquids or gases, or soft solids and a few are exceptions like diamond.
- Their boiling and melting points are low as they have weak inter-particulate forces of attraction.
- As the cold and compounds are nonpolar so they are hardly miscible in water.
- As they do not have any kind of polarity, They seldom conduct the electricity however graphite is an exception.
- These bonds are directional and rigid does they provide specific shape to the molecule.
- The reactions of these kind of compounds are complex and slow.