What is the inert pair effect?

This is the phenomenon which arise due to the inability of inner electrons to take part in the chemical reactions.

For example in case of group 15 we have Phosphorus, Arsenic , Tin and Bismuth. They all show the oxidation states of +3 and  +5, but as we move down the group we will see that the +3 oxidation state becomes more stable. This is due to the inability of inner electrons to take part in reaction.

These are more closely held by the nucleus.

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I am M.Sc (chemistry ) from punjabi university. I am a science teacher with expertise in chemistry, with 8 years of experiance in teaching. i am getting a handsome salary , now i wish to help out the people who need me UNCONDITIONALLY. and I am constantly working on creating a new and easy way of learning the tough things in an effective way. I am constantly working to make authentic and reliable information to be shared with my students and widen the horizons of knowledge.

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